Objective: Today, addressing the issue of sustainability especially in agriculture has received more attention. Sustainability in the systems of Canola cultivation depends on many factors like ecological, social and economic dimensions and understanding these factors can result in formulation of policies and strategies for sustainable agricultural development. Methods: 8961 Canola farmers of Qazvin Province composed the statistical society of this research out of which 322 persons were chosen as sample using Cochran formula and they have been studied using a stratified sampling technique. The research collection tool was a questionnaire validity of which was approved by professors and experts in rural development and reliability of which was approved by preliminary study and calculation of Cronbach's alpha. Total sustainability indicator was calculated according to the three separate dimensions after leveling the indicators scale with the method of dividing by the average through analysis of main factors. Results: The findings suggest that in terms of sustainability of the whole system of Canola cultivation, 50.90 % of the farmers act in unstable and relatively unstable manner. From economic aspect, 44.10 % of the farmers act in unstable and relatively unstable manner. 25.8% of the farmers act in stable manner in terms of ecological aspect. Results of regression analysis showed that 32% of the changes in the ecological sustainability are explained by variables of technical knowledge, knowledge of sustainability, job satisfaction, benefit from promotional programs and mechanization.