Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

Objective: A magnesium deficiency is known to be involved in many abnormalities in the post-menopausal women. Previous studies proposed that magnesium (Mg) might prevent atherosclerosis. In this study the efficacy of serum magnesium level and its relation with carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in post-menopausal women was evaluated. Methods: Eighty Iranian Postmenopausal women were included in final analysis.The serum Mg level was evaluated. The CIMT was assessed bilaterally using an ultrasonography in the 4 points at 2 cm proximal to the bulb, the 4 points at 2 cm distal to the bulb and 2 points at the carotid bulb and averaged to obtain the mean IMT.A thorough history of age and duration of menopause was taken from each patients. Data was analysed by SPSS software. Results: In all the patients of case group, a significant increase in intima media thickness of common carotid artery was observed(p≤0.001).Increased intima media thickness was associated with reduced serum level of Mg. Conclusion: This study shows that lower serum level of Mg are associated with higher CIMT in postmenopausal women. Nutritional status of the customary high intake of the marginal Mg might well be contributory to prevent the adverse effects of cardiovascular diseases.Therefore ,patients with lower serum level of Mg may have a high risk of increased CIMT.

Keywords

Abbott RD, Ando f, Masaki KH, Tung KH, Rodriguez BL, Petrovitch H, Yano K, Curb JD .Dietary magnesium intake and the future risk of coronary heart disease (the Honolulu Heart Program).Am J Cardiol..2003 (92):665-669.
Al-Delaimy WK, Rimm EB, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB .Magnesium intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. J Am Coll. Nutr. .2004(23):63-70.
Altura BT, Brust M, Bloom S, Barbour RL, Stempak JG, Altura BM. Magnesium dietary intake modulates blood lipid levels and atherogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1990: 87:1840–1844.
Arsenian MA. Magnesium and cardiovascular disease. Progress in cardiovascular diseases. 1993; 35(4):271- 310.
Chakraborti S, Chakraborti T, Mandal M, Mandal A, Das S, Ghosh S. Protective role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases: a review. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 2002; 238 (1-2):163-79.
Braithwaite RS, Col NF, Wong JB. Estimating hip fracture morbidity, mortality and costs. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003:51:364–370.
Cao Y, Wang C, Guan K, Xu Y, Su Y-x, Chen Y-m. Association of magnesium in serum and urine with carotid intima-media thickness and serum lipids in
middle-aged and elderly Chinese: a community-based cross-sectional study. European journal of nutrition. 2015:1-8.
Dai Q, Shu XO, Deng X et al. Modifying effect of calcium/magnesium intake ratio and mortality: a population-based cohort study.BMJ.2013: 3(2):2012-
002111.
Hashimoto T, Hara A, Ohkubo T et al .Serum magnesium,ambulatory blood pressure,and carotid artery alteration: the Ohasama study. Am J Hypertens.
2010: 23:1292–1298.
Hoorn EJ, van der Hoek J, Rob A, Kuipers EJ, Bolwerk C, Zietse R. A case series of proton pump inhibitor–induced hypomagnesemia. American journal of kidney diseases. 2010;56(1):112-6.
Kavey R-EW, Daniels SR, Lauer RM, Atkins DL, Hayman LL, Taubert K. American Heart Association guidelines for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease beginning in childhood. The Journal of pediatrics. 2003; 142(4):368-72.
Knopman D, Boland L, Mosley T, Howard G, Liao D, Szklo M, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline in middle-aged adults. Neurology. 2001; 56 (1):42-8.
Ko YH, Hong S, Pedersen PL. Chemical mechanism of ATP synthase magnesium plays a pivotal role in formation of the transition state where ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1999;274(41):28853-6.
Kupetsky-Rincon EA, Uitto J.Magnesium: novel applications in cardiovascular disease–a review of the literature. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism.
2012;61(2):102-10.
Longo M, Jain V, Vedernikov YP, Facchinetti F, Saade GR, Garfield RE. Endothelium dependence and gestational regulation of inhibition of vascular tone by magnesium sulfate in rat aorta. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2001;184(5):971-8.
Lukaski HC, Nielsen FH. Dietary magnesium depletion affects metabolic responses during submaximal exercise in postmenopausal women. The Journal of nutrition. 2002;132(5):930-5.
Ma J, Folsom AR, Melnick SL et al. Associations of serum and dietary magnesium with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, insulin, and carotid arterial wall thickness: the ARIC study. Atherosclerosis Risk in
Communities Study.J Clin. Epidemiol. 1995:48: 927–940.
Maier JA, Malpuech-Brugere C, Zimowska W, Rayssiguier Y, Mazur A. Low magnesium promotes endothelial cell dysfunction: implications for atherosclerosis, inflammation and thrombosis. Biochim Biophys Acta .
2004:1689:13–21.
Manson JE, Greenland P, LaCroix AZ, Stefanick ML, Mouton CP, Oberman A, et al. Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women. New England Journal of Medicine. 2002; 347 (10):716-25.
Manson JE, Hsia J, Johnson KC, Rossouw JE, Assaf AR, Lasser NL, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and the risk of coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003; 349 (6):523-34.
Marier JR. Dietary magnesium and drinking water:Effects on human health status. In: Sigel H, Sigel A,Eds. Compendium on Magnesium and Its Role in Biology, Nutrition, and Physiology. Met Ions BioI Syst1990; 26: 855104.
Mathews KA, Meilahn E, Kuller LH, Kelsey SF, Caggiula AW, Wing RR. Menopause and risk factors for coronary heart disease. New England journal of medicine. 1989; 321(10):641-6.
Mathiesen E.B,Johnsen ST,Wilsgaard T,Bonaa KH,Lochea ML,NjolstadI.Carotid plaque area and intima media thickness in prediction of first ever ischemic stroke: a 10- year follow-up of 6584 men and women:the Tromso
study .Stroke.2011;42(4):972-978.
Meinzer M, Elbert T, Djundja D, Taub E, Rockstroh B. Extending the constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) approach to cognitive functions: constraintinduced aphasia therapy (CIAT) of chronic aphasia. NeuroRehabilitation. 2006;22(4):311-8.
Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Mortality by cause for eight regions of the world: Global Burden of Disease Study. The Lancet. 1997; 349(9061):1269-76.
Ohira T, Peacock JM, Iso H, Chambless LE, Rosamond
WD,Folsom AR. Serum and dietary magnesium and risk
of ischemic stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.Am J Epidemiol. 2009: 169:1437– 1444.
Orimo H, Ouchi Y. The role of calcium and magnesium in the development of atherosclerosis. Experimental and clinical evidence. Ann NY Acnd Sci 1990; 598: 444-457.
O’Rourke, M. Arterial stiffness, systolic blood pressure, and logical treatment of arterial hypertension. Hypertension 1990; 15:339-347.
Ross R. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis—an update. New England Journal of Medicine. 1986; 314(8):488-500.
Reinhart RA. Magnesium metabolism: A review with special reference to the relationship between intracellular content and serum levels. Arch Intern Med
1988;148: 2415-2420.
Saito N, Okada T, Moriki T, Nishiyama S, Matsubayashi K. Long-term drinking of MgC12 solution and arterial lesions in female SHRSP. Ann NY Acad Sci.1990; 598: 527-529.
Seelig MS. Magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of disease: early roots of cardiovascular, skeletal, and renal abnormalities: Springer Science & Business Media; 2012.
Shlipak MG, Simon JA, Vittinghoff E, Lin F, Barrett-Connor E, Knopp RH, et al. Estrogen and progestin, lipoprotein (a), and the risk of recurrent coronary heart disease events after menopause. Jama. 2000; 283 (14):1845-52.
Spence J.D,.Eliaziw M,DiCicco M,HackamDG,Lohmann T. Carotid plaque area: a tool for targeting and evaluating vascular preventive therapy.Stroke.2002;33(12):2916-2922.
Song Y, Manson JE Cook NR, Albert CM ,Buring JE, Liu S.,Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cardiovascular disease among women.2005(96):1135-1141.
Wannarong T,Parraga G,Buchanan D,Fenster A,et al. Progression of carotid plaque volume predicts cardiovascular events.Stroke.2013;44(7):1859-1865.
Wenger NK. Coronary heart disease: The female heart is vulnerable. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2003: 46:199–229.
Xie W, Liang L, Zhao L et al.Combination of carotid intima –media thickness and plaque for better predicting risk of ischemic cardiovascular events. Heart (British Card. Soc.).2011(97):1326-1331.
Zhu HD, Martin R, Meloni B, Oltvolgyi C, Moore S,Majda B,Knuckey N.Magnesium sulfate fails to reduce infarct volume following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats . Neurosci Res. 2004(49):347-353.