Document Type: Original Article


Panskura Banamali College, Panskura RS, PIN-721152, West Bengal, India.



Industrial effluents consist many pollutant and heavy metals. Bacteria isolated from industrial west water ground may have potential to tolerate heavy metal. In this study we isolate a Citrobacter sp. which can resist heavy metal like Cu and Pb. Slurry from industrial west water ground was collected from 22.0663 N, 88.1041 E. The heavy metal content and other parameters of soil were estimated. The bacterial strains were isolated by using nutrient agar plate supplemented with 2 mM copper and lead. Among the strains one was selected for further study on the basis of resistivity against Cu and Pb. The bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA analysis. Extracellular capsules produced by the isolate were precipitated using isopropanol and analysed by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The isolate can tolerate more than 2.25 mM copper and lead. In this study bacteria were identified as Citrobacter freundii strain NK2. Presence of copper and lead in extracellular capsule were obtained by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Moreover the bacteria also exhibited multi drug resistance to many antibiotics. Isolated bacteria produce biofilms, which have chelating property. The biofilm might be used as bioabsorbent.


Adarsh, V.K., Mishra, M., Chowdhury, S., Sudarshan, M., Thakur, A.R., Chaudhuri, S.R., 2007. Studies on metal microbe interaction of three bacterial isolates from east Calcutta wetland. Onlin. J. Biol. Sci., 7(2), 80-88.
Ahluwalia, S.S., Goyal, D., 2007. Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresour. Technol., 98(12), 2243-2257.
Altschul, S.F., Madden, T.L., Schaffer, A.A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W., Lipman, D.J., 1997. Gapped BLAST and PSIBLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucl. Acid. Res., 25, 3389–3402.
Barakat, M.A., 2011. New trends in removing heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Arab. J. Chem., 4(4), 361-377.

Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M.M., Sherris, J.C., Turck, M., 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 45(4), 493-496.
Chaudhuri, S.R., Pattanayak, A.K., Thakur, A.R., 2006. Microbial DNA extraction from samples of varied origin. Current science, 91(12), 1697-1700.
Dabrowski, A., Hubicki, Z., Podkościelny, P., Robens, E., 2004. Selective removal of the heavy metal ions from waters and industrial wastewaters by ion-exchange method. Chemosphere, 56(2), 91-106.
Dick, E.M., 1994. 12 Water and wastewater sampling for environmental analysis. Environ. Sampl. Trac. Analys.,255.
Diya’uddeen, B.H., Daud, W.M.A.W., Aziz, A.A., 2011. Treatment technologies for petroleum refinery effluents: a review. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 89(2), 95-105.
Fu, F., Wang, Q., 2011. Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review. J. Environ. Manag., 92(3), 407-418.
Jiang, C.Y., Sheng, X.F., Qian, M., Wang, Q.Y., 2008. Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal-resistant Burkholderia sp. from heavy metal-contaminated paddy field soil and its potential in promoting plant growth and heavy metal accumulation in metal-polluted soil. Chemosphere, 72(2), 157-164.
Joshi, B.H., Modi, K.G., 2013. Screening and characterization of heavy metal resistant bacteria for its prospects in bioremediation of contaminated soil. J. Environ. Res. Dev., 7(4A), 1531-1538.
Liu, W.T., Marsh, T.L., Cheng, H., Forney, L.J., 1997. Characterization of microbial diversity by determining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of genes encoding 16S rRNA. Appl. Environ. Microbial., 63(11),
MacKenzie, J.M., Canil, D., 2008. Volatile heavy metal mobility in silicate liquids: implications for volcanic degassing and eruption prediction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 269(3), 488-496.
Mohan, D., Pittman, C.U., 2007. Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents—a critical review. J. Hazard. Mater., 142(1), 1-53.
Moyes, R.B., Reynolds, J., Breakwell, D.P., 2009. Differential staining of bacteria: gram stain. Current protocols in microbiology, A-3C.
Ngah, W.W., Hanafiah, M.A.K.M., 2008. Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by chemically modified plant wastes as adsorbents: a review. Bioresour. Technol., 99(10), 3935-3948.
Nies, D.H., 1999. Microbial heavy-metal resistance. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 51(6), 730-750.
Piotrowska-Seget, Z., Cycoń, M., Kozdroj, J., 2005. Metal-tolerant bacteria occurring in heavily polluted soil and mine spoil. Appl. Soil. Ecol., 28(3), 237-246.
Sharma, J., Fulekar, M.H., 2009. Potential of Citrobacter freundii for bioaccumulation of heavy metal–copper. Biol. Med., 1(3), 7-14.
Wuana, R.A., Okieimen, F.E., 2011. Heavy metals in contaminated soils: a review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. ISRN Ecology., doi:10.5402/2011/402647
Yusuf, A.J., Galadima, A., Garba, Z.N., Nasir, I., 2015. Determination of some heavy metals in soil sample from Illela Garage in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Res. J. Chem. Sci., 5(2), 8-10.
Zhang, Q., Achal, V., Xiang, W.N., Wang, D., 2014. Identification of heavy metal resistant bacteria isolated from Yangtze river, China. Int. J. Agr. Biol., 16(3), 619–623.