Document Type : Original Article


Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt


Background: The essential oils of the plant synergize the synthetic chemical pesticide activity against pests. Controlling pests mainly with synthetic chemical pesticides causes the resistance to build up in these pests like S. littoralis.
Methods: This study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic effect of garlic and thymol oils with cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos on field populations of S. littoralis. Also, the impact of the mixtures on activities of three enzymes: Glutathione S-transferase (GST), general esterase (ά-β-EST) and mixed function oxidase (MFO) of S. littoralis using dipping technique.
Results: Bioassay shows elevated LC50 for each of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos alone.
Whereas, the toxicity of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were synergized 2.81- to 9-fold; 2.74- to 8.35-fold by garlic oil respectively, but far less synergism occurred with thymol oil. The analysis showed the GST, ά-β-EST and MFO were notably inhibited by garlic and thymol oils synergism with cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos in S. littoralis.
Conclusions: The results concluded that inhibition of the enzymes could be the result of the synergist of the essential oils when it mixed with synthetic insecticides to control S. littoralis in the field.

Graphical Abstract

Synergistic Efficacy of Plant Essential Oils with Cypermethrin and Chlorpyrifos Against Spodoptera littoralis, Field Populations in Egypt


Main Subjects

Ismail SM, Abdel-Galil FA, Sameh HSh, Abu El-Ghiet UM. (2020). Influence of some insecticides on the incidence of common Lepidopterous insect pests in cotton field. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences, 12(1): 23-30.

Wu W, Sun H, Wei H, Zhan Z, Wu Z. (2008). Effect of five essential oils on the toxicity of fipronil to 2nd instar larvae of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and its penetration mechanism. Entomology Journal of East China, 17: 259-265.

Rattan R S. (2010). Mechanism of action of insecticidal secondary metabolites of plant origin. Crop protection, 29(9): 913-920.

Liu N. (2015). Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes: impact, mechanisms, and research directions. Annual Review of Entomology, 60: 537-559.

Benelli G, Pavela R, Maggi F, Wandjou J G N, Koné-Bamba D, Sagratini G, Vittori S, Caprioli G. (2019). Insecticidal activity of the essential oil and polar extracts from Ocimum gratissimum grown in Ivory Coast: Efficacy on insect pests and vectors and impact on non-target species. Industrial Crops and products, 132: 377-385.

Dong W, Zhang X, Zhang X, Wu H, Zhang M, Ma E, Zhang J. (2016). Susceptibility and potential biochemical mechanism of Oedaleus asiaticus to beta-cypermethrin and deltamethrin in the Inner Mongolia, China. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 132: 47-52.

Pavela R. (2014). Acute, synergistic and antagonistic effects of some aromatic compounds on the Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lep., Noctuidae) larvae. Industrial Crops and products, 60: 247-258.

Benelli G, Pavela R, Canale A, Cianfaglione K, Ciaschetti G, Conti F, Nicoletti M, Senthil-Nathan S, Mehlhorn H, Maggi F. (2017). Acute larvicidal toxicity of five essential oils (Pinus nigra, Hyssopus officinalis, Satureja montana, Aloysia citrodora and Pelargonium graveolens) against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: Synergistic and antagonistic effects. Parasitology international, 66(2): 166-171.

Nollet L M, Rathore H S. (2017). Green pesticides handbook: Essential oils for pest control: CRC Press.

Terriere L C. (1984). Induction of detoxication enzymes in insects. Annual Review of Entomology, 29(1): 71-88.

Smirle M J, Lowery D T, Zurowski C L. (1996). Influence of neem oil on detoxication enzyme activity in the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 56(3): 220-230.

Mossa A-T H. (2016). Green pesticides: Essential oils as biopesticides in insect-pest management. Journal of environmental science and technology, 9(5): 354.

Abbott W S. (1925). A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology, 18(2): 265-267.

Finny D. (1971). Estimation of the Median Effective Dose-response Curve. Probit Analysis: 20-48.

Khalifa M H, El-Shahawi F I, Mansour N A. (2017). Susceptibility of Spodoptera littoralis, Field Populations in Egypt to Chlorantraniliprole and the Role of Detoxification Enzymes. International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, 11(6): 432-438.

Asaoka K, Takahashi K. (1983). A colorimetric assay of glutathione S-transferases using o-dinitrobenzene as a substrate. The Journal of Biochemistry, 94(5): 1685-1688.

El-Shahawi FI, Al-Rajhi DH.  (2000).  "Intial characterization of Glutathione S- transferase from larval midgut of Spodoptera littoralis and its inhibition by spinosad and Beauveria bassiana using O-Dinitrobenzene as a substrate", Journal of King Saud University, 12: 129-142.            

Van Aspersen K. (1962).  A study of house flies esterase by means of sensitive colourimetric method. Journal of Insect Physiology, 8(4): 401-416.

Hansen L, Hodgson E. (1971). Biochemical characteristics of insect microsomes: N-and O-demethylation. Biochemical Pharmacology, 20(7): 1569-1578.

Bradford M M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical biochemistry, 72(1-2): 248-254.

Keiding J. (1976). Development of resistance to pyrethroids in field populations of Danish houseflies. Pesticide Science, 7(3): 283-291.

Keiding J. (1980). "Status of resistance in houseflies, Musca domestica", WHO Expert Committee on Resistance of Vector and Reservoirs of Diseases, 1-13.

Brindley W, Selim A. (1984). Synergism and antagonism in the analysis of insecticide resistance. Environmental Entomology, 13(2): 348-354.

B-Bernard C, Philogène B J. (1993). Insecticide synergists: role, importance, and perspectives. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A Current Issues, 38(2): 199-223.

Ismail S M. (2008). Biochemical Studies of Na+,K+-ATPase and Acetylcholinesterase Sensitivity to Phenothrin and Thiodicarb Among Different Egyptian Field Populations of Spodoptera littoralis. Alexandria Science Exchange Journal, 29(1): 26–34.

St. Clair C R, Norris E J, Masloski K E, Coats J R, Gassmann A J. (2020). Evaluation of Pyrethroids and Organophosphates in Insecticide Mixtures for Management of Western Corn Rootworm Larvae. Pest Management Science, 76(11): 3871-3878

Faraone N, Hillier N K, Cutler G C. (2015). Plant essential oils synergize and antagonize toxicity of different conventional insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). PloS one, 10(5): e0127774.

Abbassy M A, Abdelgaleil S A, Rabie R Y. (2009). Insecticidal and synergistic effects of Majorana hortensis essential oil and some of its major constituents. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 131(3): 225-232.

Silva S M, Cunha J P A R d, Carvalho S M d, Zandonadi C H S, Martins R C, Chang R. (2017). Ocimum basilicum essential oil combined with deltamethrin to improve the management of Spodoptera frugiperda. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 41(6): 665-675.

Ghadamyari M M M-M, Talebi K, Memarizade N. (2012). The effect of Artemisia annua L.(Asteraceae) essential oil on detoxify enzymes of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Journal of Plant Protection, 26(3): 29.

Tharamak S, Yooboon T, Pengsook A, Ratwatthananon A, Kumrungsee N, Bullangpoti V, Pluempanupat W. (2020). Synthesis of thymol esters and their insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Management Science, 76(3): 928-935.

Kumrungsee N, Pluempanupat W, Koul O, Bullangpoti V. (2014). Toxicity of essential oil compounds against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and their impact on detoxification enzyme activities. Journal of Pest Science, 87(4): 721-729.

Mojarab-Mahboubkar M, Sendi J J, Aliakbar A. (2015). Effect of Artemisia annua L. essential oil on toxicity, enzyme activities, and energy reserves of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Plant Protection Research, 55(4): 371-377.

Liao M, Xiao J-J, Zhou L-J, Yao X, Tang F, Hua R-M, Wu X-W, Cao H-Q. (2017). Chemical composition, insecticidal and biochemical effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on the Helicoverpa armigera. Journal of Applied Entomology, 141(9): 721-728.