Document Type : Original Article
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum & Petrochemical Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran
Department of Life Sciences Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Background: Demand for degradable and biocompatible polymers is rapidly increasing, especially in the food packaging sector where it is highly encouraged by environmental management policies.
Methods: This study aimed to prepare zein/Montmorillonite (MMT) and zein/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films by a high power ultrasonic probe method for use as a food coating. The film was produced through solvent casting method. In all the films, glycerol and Polyethylene glycol were used to improve the fragility properties. The biodegradability, color characteristics and surface roughness of the films were evaluated.
Results: Based on the results of the statistical analysis, the clay dispersion method a, Montmorillonite (MMT) and poly (vinyl alcohol) content significantly affected the mechanical and properties of the composite films. The results showed that mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were improved in the presence of small amounts (up to 3%) of MMT, while increased montmorillonite percentage in the micro composite films weakened the mechanical properties of these films. It was also found that the addition of montmorillonite and poly (vinyl alcohol) increased the porosity of the film. Therefore, the use of high power sonication is a suitable method for producing protein-based nanocomposites with an exfoliated structure.
Conclusions: as the nanocomposite films of zein, zein-polyvinyl alcohol and zein-montmorillonite are highly biodegradable, ntural and non-toxic, they are highly efficient in this field and can be used in food packaging.
- Trezza T, Vergano P. (1994). Grease resistance of corn zein coated paper. Journal of food science, 59(4): 912-915. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1994.tb08156.x
- Kasaai M R. (2018). Zein and zein-based nano-materials for food and nutrition applications: A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 79: 184-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2018.07.015
- Kariduraganavar M Y, Heggannavar G B, Amado S, Mitchell G R. (2019). Protein Nanocarriers for Targeted Drug Delivery for Cancer Therapy Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery (pp. 173-204): Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814033-8.00006-0
- Li H, Xu Y, Sun X, Wang S, Wang J, Zhu J, Wang D, Zhao L. (2018). Stability, bioactivity, and bioaccessibility of fucoxanthin in zein-caseinate composite nanoparticles fabricated at neutral pH by antisolvent precipitation. Food Hydrocolloids, 84: 379-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.06.032
- Arcan I, Yemenicioğlu A. (2013). Development of flexible zein–wax composite and zein–fatty acid blend films for controlled release of lysozyme. Food Research International, 51(1): 208-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.12.011
- Li H, Wang D, Liu C, Zhu J, Fan M, Sun X, Wang T, Xu Y, Cao Y. (2019). Fabrication of stable zein nanoparticles coated with soluble soybean polysaccharide for encapsulation of quercetin. Food Hydrocolloids, 87: 342-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.08.002
- Park J H, Park S M, Kim Y H, Oh W, Lee G W, Karim M R, Park J H, Yeum J H. (2013). Effect of montmorillonite on wettability and microstructure properties of zein/montmorillonite nanocomposite nanofiber mats. Journal of Composite Materials, 47(2): 251-257. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0021998312439221
- Senna M M, Salmieri S, El-Naggar A-W, Safrany A, Lacroix M. (2010). Improving the compatibility of zein/poly (vinyl alcohol) blends by gamma irradiation and graft copolymerization of acrylic acid. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58(7): 4470-4476. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf904088y
- Derakhti S, Shojaosadati S A, Hashemi M, Khajeh K. (2012). Process parameters study of α-amylase production in a packed-bed bioreactor under solid-state fermentation with possibility of temperature monitoring. Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 42(3): 203-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2011.599466
- Guohua Z, Ya L, Cuilan F, Min Z, Caiqiong Z, Zongdao C. (2006). Water resistance, mechanical properties and biodegradability of methylated-cornstarch/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend film. Polymer Degradation and stability, 91(4): 703-711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2005.06.008
- Vieira M G A, da Silva M A, dos Santos L O, Beppu M M. (2011). Natural-based plasticizers and biopolymer films: A review. European polymer journal, 47(3): 254-263. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2010.12.011
- Jonkman J, Brown C M, Wright G D, Anderson K I, North A J. (2020). Tutorial: guidance for quantitative confocal microscopy. Nature Protocols, 15(5): 1585-1611. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41596-020-0313-9
- Chen G, Dong S, Zhao S, Li S, Chen Y. (2019). Improving functional properties of zein film via compositing with chitosan and cold plasma treatment. Industrial Crops and products, 129: 318-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.11.072
- Dong S, Guo P, Chen Y, Chen G-y, Ji H, Ran Y, Li S-h, Chen Y. (2018). Surface modification via atmospheric cold plasma (ACP): Improved functional properties and characterization of zein film. Industrial Crops and products, 115: 124-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.01.080
- Cui H, Surendhiran D, Li C, Lin L. (2020). Biodegradable zein active film containing chitosan nanoparticle encapsulated with pomegranate peel extract for food packaging. Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 24: 100511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fpsl.2020.100511
- Qu L, Chen G, Dong S, Huo Y, Yin Z, Li S, Chen Y. (2019). Improved mechanical and antimicrobial properties of zein/chitosan films by adding highly dispersed nano-TiO2. Industrial Crops and products, 130: 450-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.12.093
- Gaona-Sánchez V, Calderon-Dominguez G, Morales-Sanchez E, Chanona-Perez J J, Velazquez-De La Cruz G, Mendez-Mendez J V, Terrés-Rojas E, Farrera-Rebollo R R. (2015). Preparation and characterisation of zein films obtained by electrospraying. Food Hydrocolloids, 49: 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2015.03.003
- Vrabič Brodnjak U, Tihole K. (2020). Chitosan Solution Containing Zein and Essential Oil as Bio Based Coating on Packaging Paper. Coatings, 10(5): 497. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10050497
- Wang K, Wu K, Xiao M, Kuang Y, Corke H, Ni X, Jiang F. (2017). Structural characterization and properties of konjac glucomannan and zein blend films. International journal of biological macromolecules, 105: 1096-1104.
- Takahashi K, Ogata A, Yang W-H, Hattori M. (2002). Increased hydrophobicity of carboxymethyl starch film by conjugation with zein. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 66(6): 1276-1280.
- Soliman E, Khalil A, Deraz S, El-Fawal G, Abd Elrahman S. (2014). Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable films prepared from Schiff bases of zein. Journal of food science and technology, 51(10): 2425-2434.
- Vahedikia N, Garavand F, Tajeddin B, Cacciotti I, Jafari S M, Omidi T, Zahedi Z. (2019). Biodegradable zein film composites reinforced with chitosan nanoparticles and cinnamon essential oil: Physical, mechanical, structural and antimicrobial attributes. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 177: 25-32.
- Kyu H H, Maddison E R, Henry N J, Ledesma J R, Wiens K E, Reiner Jr R, Biehl M H, Shields C, Osgood-Zimmerman A, Ross J M. (2018). Global, regional, and national burden of tuberculosis, 1990–2016: results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2016 Study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 18(12): 1329-1349. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30625-X
- Bueno J N, Corradini E, de Souza P R, Marques V d S, Radovanovic E, Muniz E C. (2021). Films based on mixtures of zein, chitosan, and PVA: Development with perspectives for food packaging application. Polymer Testing: 107279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymertesting.2021.107279