Document Type : Review Article

Author

Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran

10.22034/ijabbr.2021.540129.1368

Abstract

Introduction: Cancer is abnormal and uncontrolled cell proliferation. Carcinogens cause DNA damage and loss of function of tumor suppressor genes, resulting in tumor formation and metastasis.  Some carcinogens are physical factors such as ultraviolet radiation, chemical factors such as cancer-inducing chemical compounds, cigarette smoke, unbalanced diet, occupational, hereditary, hormonal, metabolic, and biological factors, especially some bacteria and viruses. 
Materials: Nowadays, an essential cancer treatment is chemotherapy that may cause drug resistance and various side effects. Some plants have long been considered reliable and excellent sources for developing anticancer drugs. Some plants play a protective and therapeutic role in cancer, while others reduce the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy and are also economically viable. Some natural marine compounds and minerals are also known to inhibit tumors. 
Results: The present paper reviews the most critical natural anticancer substances globally and introduces the most essential mechanisms of their effect. Traditional medicine of most countries includes various natural compounds used to treat different types of cancers. Some of the most essential traditional natural anticancer substances known worldwide include Catharanthus roseus, Podophylum peltatum, Combretum caffrum; Campetotheca acuminate; Brucea antidysenterica.
Conclusion: The mechanism of anticancer effect of most of these substances is related to their antioxidant properties and inhibition of the growth of their tumor cells. Many of these materials are traditionally used in different parts of the world.

Keywords

Main Subjects

  1. Asadi-Samani M, Kooti W, Aslani E, Shirzad H. (2016). A Systematic Review of Iran’s Medicinal Plants with Anticancer Effects. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 21(2): 143-153. doi: 10.1177/2156587215600873.
  2. Cragg G, Newman D. (2005). Plants as a source of anticancer agenents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 100: 72-79. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.05.011.
  3. Gurib-Fakim A. (2006). Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 27: 1-93. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2005.07.008.
  4. Pereira D M, Ferreres F, Oliveira J M, Gaspar L, Faria J, Valentao P. (2010). Pharmacological effects of Catharanthus roseus root alkaloids in acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cholinergic neurotransmission. Phytomedicine, 17: 646–652. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2009.10.008.
  5. Guerram M, Jiang ZZ, Zhang LY. (2012). Podophyllotoxin, a medicinal agent of plant origin: past, present and future. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 10: 161–169. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1009.2012.00161.
  6. Kamal A, Mallareddy A, Ramaiah MJ, Pushpavalli S, Suresh P, Kishor C, Murty J, Rao S, Ghosh S, Addlagatta A, Pal-Bhadra M. (2012). Synthesis and biological evaluation of combretastatin-amidobenzothiazole conjugates as potential anticancer agents. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 56: 166-178. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.08.021.
  7. NoorShahida A, Wong TW, Choo CY. (2009). Hypoglycemic effect of quassinoids from Brucea javanica (L.) Merr (Simaroubaceae) seeds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 124: 586–591. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.04.058. 
  8. Kusari S. Zuhlke S. Spiteller M. (2011). Correlations between camptothecin and related metabolites in Camptotheca acuminata reveal similar biosynthetic principles and in planta synergistic effects. Fitoterapia, 82: 497–507. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2011.01.005. 
  9. Sadooghi SD, Nezhad-Shahrokh-Abadi Kh, Zafar Balanezhad S, Baharara J. (2013). Investigating the cytotoxic effects of ethanolic extract of Ferula assa-foetida resin on HepG2 cell line. Feyz, 17: 323-330. (in Persian).
  10. Keramati K, Sanai K, Babakhani A, Rakhshan M, Vaezi Gh, Haeri A. (2011). Effect of hydroalcoholic extract Thymus vulgaris induced prostate cancer injection DMBA in Wistar rats. J Pazhuhesh, 35: 135-140. (in Persian).
  11. Sabzali S, Arman R, Panahi J, Havasian MR, Haghani K, Bakhtiyari S. (2012). Investigation on the inhibitory effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Thymbra spicata on the growth of lung cancer cell line SK-Mes-1. J Ilam Univ Med Sci, 22: 153-158. https://doi.org/10.7197/223.v39i31705.347450
  12. Khalighi-Sigaroodi F, Jeddi-Tehrani M, Ahvazi M. (2014). Cytotoxicity evaluation of Taverniera spartea on human cancer cell lines. J Med Plants, 2: 114-128. (in Persian).
  13. Forouzandeh F, Salimi S, Naghsh N, Zamani N, Jahani S. (2014). Evaluation of anticancer effect of Peganum harmala L hydroalcholic extract on human cervical carcinoma epithelial cell line. J Shahrekord Univ Med Sci, 16: 1-8. (in Persian).
  14. Mortazavian SM, Ghorbani A, Ghorbani Hesari T. (2012). Effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Viola tricolor and its fractions on proliferation of cervix carcinoma cells. Iran J Obstet Gynecol Infertil, 15: 9-16. (in Persian).
  15. Kazemi M, Rostami H. (2015). Chemical composition and biological activities of Iranian Achillea wilhelmsii essential oil: a high effectiveness against Candida spp. and Escherichia strains. Nat Prod Res, 29: 286-288. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2014.953949.
  16. Fattahi Siahkamari S, Azad Ghojbeiglou H, Salehi Sardoei A, Fallahimani A, Babaei K. (2020). Effect of water deficit stress and salicylic acid on some of growth traits, photosynthetic pigments and yield essential oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita). Iranian Journal of Plants and Biotechnology, 15(2): 39-51. (in Persian).
  17. Mohammed ZY, Nada SM, Al-Halbosiy MM, Abdulfattah SY, Abdul-Hameed B. (2014). Cytotoxic effects of Ammi visnaga volatile oil on some cancer cell lines. J Biotechnol Res Cent, 8: 5-7. (in Persian).
  18. Hosain zadegan H, Ezzet por B, Abdollah por F, Motamedy M, Rashidipor M. (2010). Study of cytotoxic activity of olive and green tea extracts on breast tumor cell line. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci, 10: 287-294. (in Persian).
  19. Momtazi borojeni A, Behbahani M, Sadeghi-aliabadi H. (2011). Evalution of cytotoxic effect of some extracts of Avicennia marina against MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cell line. Pharm Sci, 16: 229-238. (in Persian).
  20. Gordanian B, Behbahani M, Carapetian J, Fazilati M. (2012). Cytotoxic effect of Artemisia absinthium grown at two different altitudes on human breast cancer cell line MCF7. Res Med, 36: 124-131.
  21. Ranjbari J, Alibakhshi A, Arezumand R. (2014). Effects of Curcuma longa extract on telomerase activity in lung and breast cancer cells. Zahedan J Res Med Sci, 16: 1-6. (in Persian).
  22. Rahimi Fard N, Haji Mahdipour H, Hedayati MH, Esmaili M. (2011). Evaluation of cytotoxic effects of aqueous-methanolic saffron extract on Vero, HeLa and Hep2 cell lines using MTT assay method. Iran J Med Microbiol, 4: 59-65. (in Persian).
  23. Moheghi N, Tavakkol Afshari J, Brook A. (2011). The cytotoxic effect of Zingiber officinale in breast cancer (MCF7) cell line. Horizon Med Sci, 17: 28-34. (in Persian).
  24. Menendez JA, Vazquez-Martin A, Oliveras-Ferraros C. (2009). Extra-virgin olive oil polyphenols inhibit HER2 (erbB-2)-induced malignant transformation in human breast epithelial cells: relationship between the chemical structures of extra-virgin olive oil secoiridoids and lignans and their inhibitory activities on the tyrosine kinase activity of HER2. Int J Oncol, 34: 43-51. DOI: 3892/ijo_00000127
  25. Khazir J, Mir BA, Mir SA. (2013). Natural products as lead compounds in drug discovery. J Asian Nat Prod Res, 15: 764-788. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2013.798314.
  26. Asadi-Samani M, Kafash-Farkhad N, Azimi N, Fasihi A, AliniaAhandani E, Rafieian-Kopaei M. (2015). Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 5: 146-157. DOI: 1016/S2221-1691(15)30159-3.
  27. Shirzad H, Burton R, Smart Y, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Shirzad M. (2011). Natural cytotoxicity of NC-2þ cells against the growth and metastasis of WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma. Scand J Immunol, 73: 85-90.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3083.2010.02481.x
  28. Aslani E, Naghsh N, Ranjbar M. (2015). Cytotoxic effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of cress (Lepidium sativum) made from different stages of the plant—on k562 leukemia cell line. Hormozgan Med J, 18: 411-419. (in Persian).
  29. Alsemari A, Alkhodairy F, Aldakan A. (2014). The selective cytotoxic anticancer properties and proteomic analysis of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum. BMC Complement Altern Med, 14: 114. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-114.
  30. Hamta A, Shariatzadeh SMA, Soleimani Mehranjani SMA, Fallah Huseini H, Hosseinabadi F. (2014). The cytotoxic effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract on 4T1 cell line derived from BALB/c mice mammary tumors. J Med Plants, 2: 92-103. (in Persian).
  31. Torabzadeh P, Dezfulian M. (2013). Study of cytotoxicity effects of aqueous extract of Physalis alkekengi against u937 cell line. Q J Anim Physiol Dev, 6: 15-25. (in Persian).
  32. Shokrzadeh M, Parvaresh A, Shahani S, Habibi E, Zalzar Z. (2013). Cytotoxic effects of Lagenaria siceraria extract on cancer cell line. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, 23: 225-230. (in Persian).
  33. Forouzandeh S, Naghsh N, Salimi S, Jahantigh D. (2014). Cytotoxic effect of Boswellia serrata hydroalcholic extract on human cervical carcinoma epithelial cell line. Med Lab J. 8: 7-13. (in Persian).
  34. Bhushan S, Kumar A, Malik F. (2013). A triterpenediol from Boswellia serrata induces apoptosis through both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Apoptosis, 12: 1911-1926. doi: 10.1007/s10495-007-0105-5.
  35. Pinelli P, Ieri F, Vignolini P, Bacci L, Baronti S, Romani A. (2008). Extraction and HPLC analysis of phenolic compounds in leaves, stalks, and textile fibers of Urtica dioica J Agric Food Chem, 56: 9127-9132. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf801552d.
  36. Shokoohinia Y, Hosseinzadeh L, Alipour M, Mostafaie A, Mohammadi-Motlagh H-R. (2014). Comparative evaluation of cytotoxic and apoptogenic effects of several coumarins on human cancer cell lines: osthole induces apoptosis in p53-deficient H1299 cells. Adv Pharmacol Sci, 2014: 8. doi: 10.1155/2014/847574. 
  37. Baydar NG, Baydar H. (2013). Phenolic compounds, antiradical activity and antioxidant capacity of oil-bearing rose (Rosa damascena) extracts. Ind Crops Prod, 41: 375-380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2012.04.045
  38. Aldaghi L, DehpoorJoybari A, Nemati F, Mirdashti R, Akrami R. (2014). The effects of cytotoxicity of Astragalus cystosus on the Hela cells by using MTT method. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci, 20: 603-610. (in Persian).
  39. Ogur R. (2014). Studies with Myrtus communis: anticancer properties. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol, 3: 135-137. doi: 10.5455/jice.20140803044831
  40. Khazaei Poul Y, Majd A, Labibi F, Moini Zanjani T. (2014). Cytotoxic effect of methanolic extracts of vegetative and reproductive parts of Vinca rosea on A431, a human skin squamous carcinoma cell line. J Physiol Pharmacol, 18: 364-372. (in Persian).
  41. Ayyad S-EN, Abdel-Lateff A, Alarif WM, Patacchioli FR, Badria FA, Ezmirly ST. (2012). In vitro and in vivo study of cucurbitacins-type triterpene glucoside from Citrullus colocynthis growing in Saudi Arabia against hepatocellular carcinoma. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 33: 245-251. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2011.12.010.
  42. Banazadeh H, Delazar A, Habibi Roudkenar M, Rahmati Yamchi M, Sadeghzadeh Oscoui B, Mehdipour A. (2012). Effects of knotweet or polygonum aviculare herbal extract on proliferation of HeLa cell line. Med J Mashhad Univ Med Sci, 54: 238-241. (in Persian).
  43. Razavi SM, Imanzadeh G, Dolati S. (2011). Phytochemical prospection and biological activity of Astrodaucus orientalis (L.) Drude growing wild in Iran. Pharmacologia, 2: 299-301. DOI: 5567/pharmacologia.2011.299.303