Document Type: Review Article


Young Researchers and Elites Club, Sirjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sirjan, Iran



Synchronization of rumen available protein and energy is one of the conceptual methods to increase the efficiency of utilization of nutrients by the ruminants The concept of synchronization energy and protein was first by Jhonson, Implying that maximum microbial protein synthesis could be achieved by matching the rate of Organic Matter and protein degradation. Synchronization of rumen available protein and energy is one of the conceptual methods to increase the efficiency of utilization of nutrients by the ruminants. Feed protein are degraded by microorganism in the rumen via amino acids into ammonia and branched chain fatty acids. Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) from feed and urea recycled from saliva and from the blood across the rumen wall also contribute to the ammonia pool. Microbial protein synthesis is important for ruminant. Current concepts of ruminant nutrition focus on maximizing ruminal microbial protein production.  Animal agricultural production systems are major sources of nonpoint pollution affecting quality of water sources. The major nutrients that are considered pollutants from agricultural systems are nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and methane. Therefore, the goal of this discussion is to provide  information to aid in reducing N excretion from animals while maintaining a high level of production that is economically efficient


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