Document Type: Original Article


Department of Microbiology, the Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria



Throat infections are common cause for visit to health care centres. This study is aimed at investigating the antibacterial efficacy of G. kola seeds against bacteria involved in throat infections. Twenty clinical and 4 typed bacterial isolates associated with throat infections were obtained. Extraction from G. kola seeds using ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, hot and cold water as extraction solvents was done. Phytochemical analyses of extracts, antibacterial efficacy, MIC and MBC of extracts on test isolates using ciprofloxacin as positive control and mechanisms of action of extract; were carried out. Ethyl acetate extract was most effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae with 29±0.58 mm zone of inhibition while hot water extract was the least with 6.00±0.58 mm against S. pyogenes. Ethyl acetate extract again showed the lowest MIC and MBC at 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml respectively against S. aureus. Time-kill kinetics of the extract also showed reduction in number of bacteria cells at 30 min intervals. The mechanism of action of ethyl acetate extract is attributed to cell wall disruption with highest leakages of Na+ and K+ in K. pneumoniae obtained at 350 Cmol/kg and 82 Cmol/kg respectively, while the highest leakage of proteins was obtained in S. aureus at 88.55±5.34 mg/ml. . These results conclude that the ethyl acetate extract of G. kola seeds is of best efficacy against the tested bacteria involved in throat infections.


Main Subjects

Aamir, S, Muhammad, A, Ibrahim, KM, Asif, HM, Sami, A, Shah, SMA, Shahen, G, Ahmed, K, Rehman, RU. (2011). Pharyngitis and Sore Throat: A Review. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10:6190-6197.

Ahmad, MM, Kurawa, ZM, Shu’aibu, I, Yahaya, G. (2016). Microbiological Assessment of Bacterial Isolates from Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Among Patients Attending Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Nigerian J. Basic Appl. Sci., 24(1):15-18.

Akinyemi, AI, Ogundare, AO. (2014). Antibacterial Properties of the Leaf Extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev on Some Pathogenic Organisms. Eur. J. Med. Plant. 4(1):75-85.

Akoachere, JF, Ndip, RN, Chewnwi, EB, Ndip, LM, Njock, TE, Anong, DN. (2002). Antibacterial Effect of Zingiber officinale and G. kola on Respiratory Tract Pathogens. East Afr. Med. J. 79(11):588-592.

Altemimi, A, Lakhssassi, N, Baharlouei, A, Watson, DG, Lightfoot, DA (2017). Phytochemicals: Extraction, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Extracts. Plant, 6:2-23.

Anitha, M, Pratikshia, K, Sulthan, AM, Vijay, M. (2016). Prevalence of Bacterial Growth in Throat Swab Culture. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Health Care., 6(2):2249-5738.

Avwioro, OG, Ogunbayo, TJ, Ekhueorhan, A, Onyije, FM, Adedeji, TM. (2014). The Effect of the Mixture of Garcinia kola and Honey on the Liver of Wistar Rats. Afr. J. Cell. Pathol., 3:39-43.

Azeez MM. (2000). Bacteriology of Otitis Media in Oyo, Nigeria. J. Med. Laboratory Sci., 11(1):34–39.

Bosso, S., Innalegwu, DA. (2018). Phytochemical and Antibacterial Activity of Methanol Extract of Garcinia kola against Selected Bacteria Isolate. Am. J. Food, Nutrit. Health, 3(1):26-30.

Cheesbrough, M. (2006). Biochemical test to identify bacteria. District Labortory Practice in Tropical Countries 2nd Edition; 63-70, 136-138.

Esimone, CO, Adikwe, MU, Nworu, CS, Okoye, FB, Odimegwu, DC. (2007). Adaptogenic Potentials of Camilla sinensis Leaves, Garcinia kola and Kola nitida Seeds. Sci. Res. Essays., 2:232-237.

Hartree, EF. (1972). Determination of protein-Modification of Lowry method that gives a linear photometric response. Anal. Biochem., 48:422–427.

Huang, T, Zheng, Y, Yan, Y, Yang, L, Yao, Y, Zheng, J. (2016). Probing Minority Population of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. Biosens Bioel., 80:323–30.

Ibrahim, R, Abubakar, EM, Misau, MS, Lamaran, Bala G. (2017). Percentage Yield and Acute Toxicity of the Plant Extracts of Ceiba pentandra Grown in Bauchi state, North Eastern Nigeria. J. Pharm. Phytochem., 6(5):1777-1779.

Moirangthem, A, Gurung, K. (2013). Bacteriology Analysis and its Antibiogram Profile of Pharyngitis Cases from the Patients Attending Referral Hospital, Sikkim, India. Bali Med. J., 2(1):10-13.

Muna, M, Salam, AH, Sajda, A. (2011). Extraction, Identification and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Phenolic Acids as Antioxidants in Teucrium polium Plant. Kerbala J. Phar. Sci., 2:179-188.

Neu, HC, Gootz, TD. (2014). Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Upsala J. Med. Sci., 119:68–77.

Odeyemi, OA, Oluwajoba, SO. (2011). Antimicrobial activity of Garcinia kola against human upper respiratory tract pathogens. Int. J. Res. Biomed. Biotechnol., 1:5-8.

Odutayo, F, Ezeamagu, C, Kabiawu, T, Aina, D, Mensah-Agyei, G. (2017). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Chromolaena odorata Leaf Extract Against Selected Microorganisms. J. Adv. Med. Pharm. Sci., 13:1-9.

Ogundare, AO, Akinyemi, AI. (2011). Phytochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Combretum mucronatum (Schumach) Leaf Extract. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 5(18):2632-2637.

Okonkwo, EC, Nworie, O, Onwa, AC, Udu-Ibiam, EO, Oke, B, Nwosu, UO, Mercy, N. (2017). Antimicrobial Effects of Bitter Kola (Garcinia kola) Nut on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. World J. Med. Sci., 14(3):89-96.

Okwulehie, IC, Alozie, VC, Ikechukwu, GC, Nwokeocha, OW. (2017). Effects of Extraction Solvents on Bioactive Components and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Varieties of Garcinia kola (Heckle) OBOWO 02 (Soft and Less Bitter) and OBOWO 03 (Hard and Very Bitter). UK J. Pharm. Biosci., 5(6):20-25.

Ryan, KJ, Ray, CG. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill , New York.

Seanego, CT, Ndip, RN. (2012). Identification and Antibacterial Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds. Molecules, 17:6569-6584.

Tang, Q, Kang, AR, Lu, CK. (2016). Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of the Methanolic Extract of Scutellaria barbata Against Various Clinically Important Bacterial Pathogen. Int. J. Pharmacol., 12:116-125.

Tcheghebe, OT, Martin Signe, M, Seukep, AJ, Tatong, FN. (2016). Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profiles of Garcinia kola Heckel. Merit Res. J. Med. Med. Sci., 4(11):480-489.

Vhagasiya, Y, Batel, H, Chanda, S. (2011). Antibacterial Activity of Mangifera inica L Seeds against Some Human Pathogenic Bacterial Strains. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10(70):15788-15794.

Wang, L, Qiao, X, Liang, A, Zhai, JJ, Wang, XX. (2016). Isolation of Antimicrobial Resistant Bacteria in Upper Respiratory Tract Infections of Patients. 3 Biotech, 6:166.

WHO (2018). Antimicrobial resistance. Why is antimicrobial resistance a global problem (

WHO Memorandu (1981). Clinical management of acute respiratory infections in children: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 15:707–716(