Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Animal Science, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria

2 Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria

3 Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Nigeria


Ameliorative potential of antioxidants –vitamins C and E on blood profile of Clarias gariepinus fed diets contaminated with varied levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) was evaluated. Fusarium cultured maize containing FB1 were used to formulate diets containing approximately 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mg FB1/kg constituting diets 2, 3, and 4, respectively and other nine diets constituting Diets 5 - 13 with the same varied dietary FB1 concentrations but supplemented with 0.6g of vitamin C or E or vitamins C and E. These 12 diets and a control diet were used in 12-week feeding trial. Significant (P


Main Subjects

Abbès, S, Ben Salah-Abbès, J, Jebali, R, Younes, RB, Oueslati, R. (2016). Interaction of aflatoxin B and fumonisin B in mice causes immunotoxicity and oxidative stress: Possible protective role using lactic acid bacteria. J. Immunotoxicol., 13(1):46-54.

Adikwu, E, Deo, O. (2013). Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Pharmacol. Pharm., 4(1):84-92.

Ai, Q, Mai, K, Zhang, C, Xu, W, Duan, Q, Tan, B, Liufu, Z. (2004).Effects of dietary vitamin C on growth and immune response of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus. Aquacult., 242:489-500.

Eboh, AS. (2014). Biochemistry of free radicals and antioxidants. Scholars Acad. J. Biosci., 2(2): 110-118.

Balogh, K, Hausenblasz, J, Weber, M, Erdélyi, M, Fodor, J, Mézes, M. (2007). Effects of ochratoxin A on some production traits, lipid peroxide and glutathione redox status of weaned piglets. Acta Vet. Hung., 55:463-470.

Barbosa, BTS, Pereyra, CM, Soleiro, CA, Dias, EO, Oliveira, AA, Keller, KA, Silva, PPO, Cavaglieri, LR, Rosa, CAR. (2013). Mycobiota and mycotoxins present in finished fish feeds from farms in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Int. Aquat. Res., 5(3):2-9.

Bhatti, JA, Younas, M, Abdullah, M, Babar, ME, Nawaz, H. (2009). Feed intake, weight gain and haematology in Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers fed on Mott grass and Berseem fodder substituted with saltbush (Atriplex amnicola). Pakistan Vet. J.,29(3):133-137.

Citil, M, Gunes, V, Atakisi, O, Ozcan, A, Tuzcu, M, Dogan, A. (2005). Protective effect of L-carnitine against oxidative damage caused by experimental chronic aflatoxicosis in quail (Coturnix coturnix). Acta Vet. Hung., 53:319-324.

Douglass, JW, Jane, KW. (2000). Schalm’s Veterinary Haematology. John Wiley and Sons, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. P: 1232.

Dvorska, JE, Pappas, AC, Karadas, F, Speake, BK, Surai, PF. (2007). Protective effect of modified glucomannans and organic selenium against antioxidant depletion in the chicken liver due to T-2 toxin contaminated feed consumption. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Pt. C, 145:582-587.

Ewuola, EO, Egbunike, GN. (2008). Haematological and serum biochemical response of growing rabbit bucks fed dietary fumonisin B1. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 7:4304-4309.

Ewuola, EO, Gbore, FA, Ogunlade, JT, Bandyopadhyay, R, Niezen, J, Egbunike, GN. (2008). Physiological response of rabbit bucks to dietary fumonisin: performance, haematology and serum biochemistry. Mycopathologia, 165:99-104.

Femi-Oloye, OP, Olatunji-Ojo, AM, Owoloye, A, Adewumi, B, Ibitoye, BO, Oloye, FF, Gbore, FA. (2019). Effects of simultaneous consumption of food additives on functions and histopathology of Wistar rats liver.  Moroccan J. Biol., 16:1-11.

Firat, O, Cogun, HY, Yüzereroğlu, TA, Gök, G, Firat, O, Kargin, F, Kötemen, Y. (2011). A comparative study on the effects of a pesticide (cypermethrin) and two metals (copper, lead) to serum biochemistry of Nile tilapia, Oreochrom. niloticus. Fish Physiol. Biochem.,37(3):657-666.

Gabriel, UU, George, ADI. (2005). Plasma enzymes in Clarias gariepinus exposed to chronic levels of round up (glyphosate). Environ. Ecol.,23(2):271-276.

Gbore, FA, Egbunike, GN. (2008). Haematotoxicity of dietary fumonisin B1 in growing pigs. ASSET Series B, 7:1-8.

Gbore, FA, Egbunike, GN. (2009). Toxicological evaluation of dietary fumonisin B1 on serum biochemistry of growing pigs. J. Cent. Eur. Agric., 10:255-262.

Gbore, FA, Akele, O. (2010). Growth performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of female rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) fed dietary fumonisin. Vet. Arhiv,80:431-443.

Gbore, FA, Adewole, AM, Oginni, O, Oguntolu, MF, Bada, AM, Akele, O. (2010). Growth performance, haematology and serum biochemistry of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings fed graded levels of dietary fumonisin B1. Mycotoxin Res.,26:221–227.

Griessler, K, Encarnação, P. (2009). Fumonisins-mycotoxins of increasing importance in fish.  Aquacult. Asia Magazine, XIV:24-26.

Harvey, RA, Ferrier, DR. (2011). Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry. 5th ed. Philadelphia: William and Wilkins.

Hassan, AA, Jassim, HM. (2010). Effect of treating lactating rats with lead acetate and its interaction with vitamin E or C on neurobehavior, development and some biochemical parameters in their pups. Iraqi J. Vet. Sci., 24(1):45-52.

Hassan, AM, Mohamed, SR, El-Nekeety, AA, Hassan, NS, Abdel-Wahhab, MA. (2010). Aquilegia vulgaris L. extract counteracts oxidative stress and cytotoxicity of fumonisin in rats. Toxicon, 56(1):8-18.

Hfaiedh, N, Murat, JC, Elfeki, A. (2012). A combination of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol or a combination of Mg and Zn are both able to reduce the adverse effects of lindane-poisoning on rat brain and liver. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol., 26(4):273-278.

Hooft, JM, Hakeem Ibraheem Elmor, AE, Encarnação, P, Bureau, DP. (2010). Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is extremely sensitive to the feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON).  Aquaculture, 311:224-232.

Iheshiulor, OOM, Esonu, BO, Chuwuka, OK, Omede, AA, Okoli, IC, Ogbeuewu, IP. (2011). Effects of mycotoxins in animal nutrition. A review. Asian J. Anim. Sci., 5:19-33.

Ispır, U, Yonar, ME, Oz, OB (2011). Effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on the blood parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). J. Anim. Plant Sci., 21(3):566-569.

Jaiswal, SK, Gupta, VK, Siddiqi, NJ, Pandey, RS, Sharma, B. (2015). Hepatoprotective effect of citrus limon fruit extract against carbofuran induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Chin. J. Biol., 2015:1-10.

Jaiswal, SK, Gupta, VK, Ansari, MD, Siddiqi, NJ, Sharma, B. (2017). Vitamin C acts as a hepatoprotectant in carbofuran treated rat liver slices in vitro. Toxicol. Rep., 4:265-273.

Jamalzadeh, HR, Keyvan, A, Ghomi, MR, Gherardi, F. (2009). Comparison of blood indices in healthy and fungal infected Caspian salmon (Salmo trutta caspius). Afr. J. Biotechnol., 8:319-322.

Joshi, PK, Bose, M, Harish, D. (2002). Changes in certain haematological parameters in a siluroid catfish Clarias batrachus (Linn) exposed to cadmium chloride. Pollut. Res., 21(2):129-131.

Karakilcik, AZ, Zerin, M, Arslan, O, Nazligul, Y, Vural, H. (2004). Effects of vitamin C and E on liver enzymes and biochemical parameters of rabbits exposed to aflatoxin B1. Vet. Human Toxicol., 46(4):190-192.

Lin, M, Shiau, S. (2005). Dietary l-ascorbic acid affects growth, nonspecific immune responses and disease resistance in juvenile grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus. Aquaculture, 244:215-221.

Mohamed, HMA, Emeish, WFA, Braeuning, A, Hammad, S. (2017). Detection of aflatoxin-producing fungi isolated from Nile tilapia and fish feed. EXCLI J., 16:1308–1318.

Mommsen, TP, Vijayan, MM, Moon, TW. (1999). Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries, 9:211-268.

Nguyen, AT, Manning, BB, Lovell, RT, Rottinghaus, GE. (2003). Responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different concentrations of moniliformin or fumonisin B1. Aquaculture, 217:515-528.

Okuda, T, Haga, T, Kanai, Y, Endou, H, Ishihara, T, Katsura, I. (2000). Identification and characterization of the high-affinity choline transporter. Nat. Neurosci., 3:120-125.

Pál, L, Dublecz, K, Weber, M, Balogh, K, Erdelyi, M, Szigeti, G, Mezes, M. (2009). Effect of combined treatment with Aflatoxin B-1 and T-2 toxin and metabolites on some production traits and lipid peroxide status parameters of broiler chickens. Acta Vet. Hung., 57:75-84.

Pepeljnjak, S, Petrinec, Z, Kovacic, S, Segvic, M. (2003). Screening toxicity study in young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) on feed amended with fumonisin B1. Mycopathologia, 156(2):139-145

Reddy, BN, Rani, GS, Raghavender, CR. (2006). Earhead molds and insect pests of pearl millet under field conditions. Indian J. Multidiscip. Res., 2(1):59–68.

Reddy, BN, Raghavender, CR. (2008). Outbreaks of fusarial-toxicoses in India. Cereal Res. Commun., 36:321-325.

Riccioni, G, Bucciarelli, T, Mancini, B, Di Ilio, C, Capra, V, D''Orazio, N. (2007). The Role of the antioxidant vitamin supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs, 16(1):25-32.

Sahoo, PK, Mukherjee, SC. (2002). Effect of dietary immunomodulation upon Edwardsiella tarda vaccination in healthy and immunocompromised Indian major carp (Labeo rohita). Fish Shellfish Immun., 12:1-16.

Salah, SH, Abdou, HS, Abdel-Rahim, EA. (2010). Modulatory effect of vitamins A, C and E mixtures against tefluthrin pesticide genotoxicity in rats. Pestic. Biochem. Phys., 98:191-197.

Santacroce, MP, Conversano, MC, Casalino, E, Lai, O, Zizzadoro, C, Centoducati, G, Crescenzo, G. (2008). Aflatoxins in aquatic species: metabolism, toxicity and perspectives. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries, 18:99–130.

Santos, GA, Rodrigues, I, Naehrer, K, Encarnação, P. (2010). Mycotoxins in aquaculture: Occurrence in feed components and impact on animal performance. Aquaculture Eur., 35:6-10.

Sies, H. (1997). Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. Exp. Physiol., 82(2):291–295.

Skŕivan, M, Marounek, M, Englmaierová, M, Skr¡ivanová, E. (2012). Influence of dietary vitamin C and selenium, alone and in combination, on the composition and oxidative stability of meat of broilers. Food Chem., 130:660-664.

Spring, P, Fegan, DF. (2005). Mycotoxins –a rising threat to aquaculture? In: Lyons T.P. and Jacques K.A (eds.), Nutritional biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries. Proceeding of Alltech’s 21st Annual Symposium. Lexington, Kentucky, USA. p. 323–332.

Stockmann-Juvala, H, Mikkola, J, Naarala, J, Loikkanen, J, Elovaara, E, Savolainen, K. (2004). Oxidative stress induced by fumonisin B1 in continuous human and rodent neural cell cultures. Free Radic. Res., 38(9):933-942.

Sun, Y, Ma, A, Li, Y, Han, X, Wang, Q, Liang, H. (2012). Vitamin E supplementation protects erythrocyte membranes from oxidative stress in healthy Chinese middle-aged and elderly people.  Nutr. Res., 32:328-334.

Tavares-Dias, M, Moraes, FR. (2007). Haematological and biochemical reference intervals for farmed channel catfish. J. Fish Biol., 71(2):383-388.

Tuan, NA, Manning, BB, Lovell, RT, Rottinghaus, GE. (2003). Responses of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different concentrations of moniliformin or fumonisin B1. Aquaculture,217:515-528.

Voss, KA, Smith, GW, Haschek, WM. (2007). Fumonisins: toxicokinetics, mechanism of action and toxicity. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 137:299-325.

Warth, B, Sulyok, M, Berthiller, F, Schuhmacher, R, Krska, R. (2013). New insights into the human metabolism of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. Toxicol. Lett., 220(1):88-94.

Yildirim, M, Manning, BB, Lovell, RT, Grizzle, JM. (2000). Toxicity of moniliformin and fumonisin B1 fed singly and in combination in diets for young Channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. J. World Aquacult. Soc., 31:599-608.

Yousef, MI, Salem, MH, Kamel, KI, Hassan, GA, El-Nouty, FD. (2003). Influence of ascorbic acid supplementation on the haematological and clinical biochemistry parameters of male rabbits exposed to aflatoxin B1. J. Environ. Sci. Heal. B, 38(2):193-209.

Zingg, JM. (2007). Molecular and cellular activities of vitamin E analogues. Mini-Rev. Med. Chem., 7(5):543-558.