Document Type: Review Article


1 M.Sc. students of animal physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Assistant Prof, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


Nutrition has a significant effect on reproduction and lactation in Ruminant. Supply of require nutrient of dairy cows and ewes in early lactation is the main challenges that will be considered, since in most cases the animals facing negative energy balance after calving and the beginning of the period of lactation. Negative energy balance may sometimes result in reduced livestock production and metabolic diseases and thus negatively affected the growth of lambs and calves. The use of energy-rich diets, especially during the rearing period lactation can help to solve this problem. Studies showed that fat supplementation has positive effects on dairy cattle during a 120-day lactation period. Milk fat yield increased linearly during the nursing period, but not in the rest of lactation, with increased CSFA feeding. The absence of a positive response in milk fat yield during the milking period, even with high levels of CSFA in the diet, indicates a decrease in transfer of fat from CSFA to milk as lactation advanced, which is quantified by the lower relative milk fat yield response with high CSFA levels at the end of lactation


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