Document Type: Original Article

Author

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

Changes in the microbial community in response to catastrophic oil spills in marine and fresh water environments have been well documented. Molecular methods provide tools for analyzing the entire bacterial community, covering also those bacteria that have not been cultured in the laboratory. In this study, four different microcosms were set up containing sediments collected from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. One from each location was experimentally contaminated with crude oil and the other left for control. PCR-DGGE analyses were used for understanding the effect of crude oil on marine microbial community in the sediments. The results of this research show that after oil pollution biodiversity decrease in contaminated ecosystems in compare to uncontaminated ecosystems as H index was 3.56 in uncontaminated sediments but it was decrease to 2.7 after contamination. Also different ecosystems have resembled in microbial community after contamination. These results confirmed that crude oil induce major shifts in the composition and biodiversity of marine microbial community in the sediments.

Keywords

Alef, K., Nanniper, P. (1995). Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic Press, New York.

Amann, R.I., Ludwig, W., Schleifer, K.H. (1995). Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation. Microbiol Rev, 59: 143–169.

Andreoni, V., Cavalca, L., Rao, M. A., Nocerino, G., Bernasconi, S., Amico, M., Colombo, L. (2004). Bacterial communities and enzyme activities of PAHs polluted soils. Chemosphere, 57: 401–412.

Balba, M.T., Al-Awadhi, N., Al-Daher, R. (1998). Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil: microbiological methods for feasibility assessment and field evaluation. J Microbiol Method, 32: 155-164.

Boon, N., Windt, W.W., Verstraete, W., Top, E.M. (2002). Evaluation of nested PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) with group-specific 16S rRNA primers for the analysis of bacterial communities from different wastewater treatment plants. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol, 39: 101–112.

Brown, E.J., Braddock, J.F. (1990).Sheen screen, a miniaturized Most-Probable-Number method for enumeration of oil-degrading microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol,56:3895-3896.

Cappello, S., Denaro, R., Genovese, M., Giuliano, L., Yakimov, M.M. (2006). Predominant growth of Alcanivorax during experiments on oil spill bioremediation in mesocosms. Microbiol Res, 162: 185–190.

Cappello, S., Caruso, G., Zampino, D., Monticelli, L.S., Maimone, G., Denaro, R., Tripodo, B., Troussellier, M., Yakimov, M.M., Giuliano, L. (2007). Microbial community dynamics during assays of harbour oil spill bioremediation: a microscale simulation study. J Appl Microbiol,102 (1): 184-194.

Cappello, S., Crisari, A., Hassanshahian, M., Genovese, M., Santisi, S., Yakimov, M. M. (2012a). Effect of a Bioemulsificant Exopolysaccharide (EPS2003) on Abundance and Vitality of Marine Bacteria. Wat. Air Soil Pollut, DOI 10.1007/s11270-012-1159-8.

Cappello, S., Santisi, S., Calogero, R., Hassanshahian, M., Yakimov, M.M. (2012b). Characterization of Oil-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Bilge Water. Wat Air Soil Pollut, 223: 3219-3226.

Caruso, G., Denaro, R., Genovese, M., Giuliano, L., Mancuso, M., Yakimov, M.M 2004. New methodological strategies for detecting bacterial indicators. Chem Ecol, 20 (3): 167–181.

Delille, D., Delille, B. (2000). Field observations on the variability of crude oil impact on indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from sub-Antarctic intertidal sediments. Mar Environ Res, 49: 403-417.

Denaro, R., D’Auria, G., Di Marco, G., Genovese, M., Troussellier, M., Yakimov, M.M., Giuliano, L. (2005). Assessing terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism suitability for the description of bacterial community structure and dynamics in hydrocarbon-polluted marine environments. Environ Microbiol, 7: 78–87.

Dutta, TK., Harayama, S., 2001. Analysis of long-side chain alkylaromatics in crude oil for evaluation of their fate in the environment. Environ Sci Technol, 35: 102–107.

Dyksterhouse, S.E., Gray, J.P., Herwig, R.P., Lara, J.C., Staley, J.T. (1995). Cycloclasticus pugetii gen. nov., sp. nov., an aromatic hydrocarbon degrading bacterium from marine sediments. Int J Syst Bacteriol, 45: 116-123.

Emtiazi, G., Hassanshahian, M., Golbang, N. (2005). Development of a microtiter plate method for determination of phenol utilization, biofilm formation and respiratory activity by environmental bacterial isolates. Int Biodeter Biodegr, 56: 231-235.

Emtiazi, G., Saleh, T., Hassanshahian, M. (2009). The effect of bacterial glutathione S-transferase on morpholine degradation. Biotech J,  4: 202–205.

Fægri, A., Torsvik, V.L., Goksyr, J. (1977). Bacterial and fungal activities in soil: separation of bacteria and fungi by a rapid fractionated centrifugation technique. Soil Biol Biochem, 9: 105–112.

Ghanavati, H., Emtiazi, G., Hassanshahian, M. (2008). Synergism effects of phenol degrading yeast and Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria for nitrification in coke wastewater of Esfahan Steel Company. Waste Manage Res,  26: 203-208.

Hara, A., Syutsubo, K., Harayama, S. (2003). Alcanivorax which prevails in oil-contaminated seawater exhibits broad substrate specificity for alkane degradation. Environ Microbio, 5(9): 746–753.

Hasanshahian, M., Emtiazi, G. (2008).  Investigation of alkane biodegradation using the microtiter plate method and correlation between biofilm formation, biosurfactant production and crude oil biodegradation. Int Biodeter Biodegr, 62: 170-178.

Hassanshahian, M., Emtiazi, G., Cappello, S. (2012a).  Isolation and characterization of crude-oil-degrading bacteria from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. Mar Pollut Bull, 64: 7–12.

Hassanshahian, M., Emtiazi, G., Kermanshahi, R., Cappello, S. (2010). Comparison of oil degrading microbial communities in sediments from the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea. Soil Sediment Contam, 19 (3): 277-291.

Hassanshahian, M., Tebyanian, H., Cappello, S. (2012b). Isolation and characterization of two crude-oil degrading yeast strains, Yarrowia lipolytica PG-20 and PG-32 from Persian Gulf. Mar. Pollut Bull, 64: 1386-1391.

Head, I.M., Jones, D.M., Roling, W.F. (2006). Marine microorganisms make a meal of oil. Nat Rev Microbiol, 4: 173-182.

Heissblanquet, S., Benoit, Y., Maréchaux, C., Monot, F. (2005). Assessing the role of alkane hydroxylase genotypes in environmental samples by competitive PCR. J Appl Microbiol, 99: 1392-1403.

Holben, W.E., Harris, D. (1995). DNA-based monitoring of total bacterial community structure in environmental samples. Mol Ecol, 4: 627–631.

Iwamoto, T., Tani, K., Nakamura, K., Suzuki, Y., Kitagawa, M., Eguchi, M., Nasu, M. (2000). Monitoring impact of in situ biostimulation treatment on groundwater bacterial community by DGGE. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 32: 129–141.

Klee, A.J. (1993). A computer program for the determination of most probable number and its confidence limits. J  Microbiol Method, 18: 91-­98.

Labud, V., Garcia, C., Hernandez, T. (2007). Effect of hydrocarbon pollution on the microbial properties of a sandy and a clay soil. Chemosphere, 66: 1863–1871.

Li hui, Z.Y., Kravchenko, I., Xu, H., Zhang, C. (2007). Dynamic changes in microbial activity and community structure during biodegradation of petroleum compounds: A laboratory experiment. J Environ Scien, 19: 1003–1013.

Margesin, R., Labbe, D., Schinner, F.C., Greer, W., Whyte, L.G. (2003). Characterization of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations in contaminated and pristine alpine soils. Appl Environ Microbiol, 69: 3085–3092.

Muyzer, G., Ramsing, N.B. (1995). Molecular methods to study the organization of microbial communities. Wat Scien Technol, 32: 1–9.

Muyzer., G., de Waal, E.C., Uitterlinden, A.G. (1993). Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reactionamplified genes encoding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol, 59: 695–700.

Olsen, G.J., Lane, D.J., Giovannoni, S.J., Pace, N.R. (1986). Microbial ecology and evolution: a ribosomal approach. Ann Rev Microbiol, 40: 337–365.

Pickup, R.W. (1991). Development of molecular methods for the detection of specific bacteria in the environment. J Gen Microbiol, 137: 1009–1019.

Prosser, J.I. (2002). Molecular and functional diversity in soil microorganisms. Plant Soil, 244: 9–17.

Radwan, S.S., Al-Hasan, R.H., Salamah, A., Khanafer, M. (2005). Oil-consuming microbial consortia floating in the Arabian Gulf. Int Biodeter Biodegr, 56: 28–33.

Silva, K.R.A., Salles, J.F., Seldin, L. van Elsas, J.D. (2003). Application of a novel Paenibacillus -specific PCR-DGGE method and seqeunce analysis to assess the diversity of Paenibacillus spp. in the maize rhizosphere. J Microbiol Method, 54: 213–231.

Stackebrandt, E., Liesack, W., Goebel, B.M. (1993). Bacterial diversity in a soil sample from a subtropical Australian environment as determined by 16S rDNA analysis. FASEB J, 7: 232–236.

Torsvik, V., Sørheim, R., Goksøyr, J. (1996). Total bacterial diversity in soil and sediment communities—a review. J Indus Microbiol 17: 170–178.

Watanabe, K., Watanabe, K., Kodama, Y., Syutsubo, K., Harayama, S. (2000).  Molecular characterization of bacterial populations in petroleum contaminated groundwater discharged from underground crude oil storage cavities. Appl  Environ Microbiol, 66: 4803–4809.

Wrenn, B.A., Venosa, A.D. (1996). Selective enumeration of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon degrading bacteria by a most probable number procedure. Can J Microbiol, 42 (3): 252-258.

Zhou, J., Bruns, M.A., Tiedje, J.M. (1996). DNA recovery from soils of diverse composition. Appl Environ Microbiol, 62: 316–322.