Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Dep. of Agronomy and plant breeding, Agriculture Faculty, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Dep. of Medicinal Plants, Applied-Scientific University of Jihad-Agriculture, Hamedan, Iran

Abstract

A major problem of arid and semi-arid regions is environmental stresses like salinity and drought. To study the effect of Artichoke germination under different levels of salinity and drought, two separate experiments were performed. The experimental treatments included different salinity levels of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 mM) and five drought levels by PEG (0, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) with three replications that used based on completely randomized design. Results showed that drought and salinity stresses reduced significantly germination rate, germination percent, and shoot length. In both conditions, there was insignificant difference between treatments for dry weight of root and shoot. There was insignificant difference between treatments for root length in salinity condition, but in drought condition, there was significant difference for this trait. Moisture range optimum for germination was determined from non-stress to 20% PEG concentration (in this study). It seemed that among traits, shoot length was more sensitive than others to salinity and drought stresses. It was observed that Common Yarrow fairly tolerated salinity better than drought conditions. It can be concluded that Common Yarrow can tolerate salinity up to 150 Mm, but in drought conditions it cannot germinate in 25% PEG.

Keywords

Afzal, I. (2005). Seed enhancements to induced salt tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Ph.D. thesis, Agricultural University of Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Ali, R.M., Abbas, H.M and Kamal, R.K. (2007). The effects of treatment with polyamines on dry matter, oil and flavonoid contents in salinity stressed chamomile and sweet marjoram. Plant Soil Environ, 53: 529-43.

Asghari, M. (2002). Ethylene effect on osmotic adjustment and growth of axial and cotyledon tissues of sunflower seeds under drought stress. Industry Journal of Agricultural Science, 7: 137-145. (In Persian)

Bartram, T. (1995). Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine, 1st edn, Grace Publishers, Bournemouth B D (1995): Encyclopedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. ISBN 0-7513-020-31.

Barzegar, A and Rahmani, M. (2004). The effects of environmental stresses on germination stimulation of Hyssopus officinalis. The proceedings of the second conference on herbal plants, Shahed University,Tehran. P. 67.

Batanouny, K.H. (1999). Wild Medicinal Plants in Egypt. (with contribution of: Aboutabl E, Shabana M, Soliman F). With support of the Swiss Development Co-operation (SDC). Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egypt. The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Switzerland. pp. 102-104.

Belaqziz, R., Romane, A and Abbad, A. (2009). Salt stress effects on germination, growth and essential oil content of an endemic thyme species in Morocco (Thymus maroccanus Ball.). J Applied Sci Res, 5(7): 858-63.

Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt, Azollaceae-Oxalidace, Vol. 1. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.

Emmerich, W.E and Hardegree, S.P. (1991). Crop Science, 31, pp.454-458.

Falleri, E. (1994). Effect of water stress on germination in six provenances of pinus pinaster Ait. Seed Sci and Technol, 22: 591-599.

Fernandez, G and Johnston, M. (1995). Seed Science and technology. 23, pp.617-627.

Hadi, M., Taheri, R and Sharif, M. (2007). Evaluation of salinity effect on seed germination of Seidlitzia Rosmarinus. Journal of Research and Productivity, 76: 151-157.

Halevy, A.H. (1999). New flower crops. p 407-409. In: Janick J. (ed.), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.

Hayat, R and Ali, S. (2004). Water absorption by synthetic polymer (Aquasorb) and its effect on soil properties and tomato yield. Int J Agric Biol, 6: 998–1002.

He, Y.L., Liu, Y.L., Chen, Q and Bian, A.H. (2002). Thermo tolerance related to anti-oxidation induced by salicylic acid and heat hardening in tall fescue seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology, Molecular and Biology, 28(2): 89-95.

Innocenti, G., Vegeto, E., Dall’Acqua, S., Ciana, P., Giorgetti, M., Agradi, E., Sozzi ,A., Fico, G and Tome, F. (2007). In vitro Estrogenic Activity of Achillea millefolium L. Phytomedicin, 14: 147-152.

 Jajarmi, V. (2009). Effect of water stress on germination indices in seven wheat cultivar Acad. Sci Eng Technol, 49: 105-106.

Jefferson, L.V and Penachchio, M. (2003). Allelopathic effects of foliage extracts from four chenopodiaceae species on seed germination. J Arid Enviro, 55: 275-285.

Katergi, N.J., Van Hoorn, W., Hamdy, A., Karam, F and Mastrortilli, M. (1994). Agricultural Water Management  26: 81-91.

Kulkarni, M and Deshpande, U. (2007). In vitro screening of tomato genotypes for drought resistance using polyethylene glycol. Afr J Biotech, 6(6): 691-696.

Marchner, H. (1995). Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants .Second reprint. Academic Press. Pp:6-73.

Miceli, A., Moncada, A and D’Anna, F. (2003). Effect of water salinity on seeds-germination of Ocimum basilicum L., Eruca sativa L. and Petroselinum hortense Hoffm. Acta Hort (ISHS); 609: 365-70.

Michel, B.E and Kaufman, M.R. (1973). The osmotic potential of polyethylene glycol 6000. Plant Physiology, 51: 914–916.

Nabizadeh, M.R. (2002). Study of effect of salinity level on growth and yield of cumin. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Agronomy, Ferdowsi University of Mashad, Mashad, Iran. (In Persian)

 Nikolova, M.T and Ivancheva, S.V. (2005). Quantitative flavonoid variations of Artemisia vulgaris L. and Veronica chamaedrys L. in relation to altitude and polluted environment. Acta Biol Szegediensis, 49: 29-32.

Penuelas, J., Isla, R., Filella, I and Araus, J.L. (1997). Visible and near infrared reflectance assessment of salinity effects on barley. Crop Sci, 37: 198-202.

Ramin, A.A. (2006). Effects of salinity and temperature on germination and seedling establishment of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). J Herbs Spices Med Plants 11(4): 81-90.

 Rehman, S, Harris, P.J.C., Bourne, W.F and Wikin, J. (1996). The effect of sodium chloride on germination and the potassium and calcium contents of Acacia seeds. Seed Science & Technology, 25: 45-57.

Rohloff, J., Skagen, E.B., Steen, A.H and Iversen, T.H. (2000). Production of yarrow (Achillea millifolium) in Norway: essential oil content and quality. J Agri Food Chem 48: 6205-6209.

Safarnejad, A., Collin, H., Bruce, K.D and Mcneillly, T. (1996). Characterization of alfalfa following in vitro selection for salt tolerance. Euphytica, 92: 55-61.

SAS Institute. (2004). Base SAS 9.1.3 Procedures Guide. SAS/STAT 9.1 Users Guide. SAS/GRAPH 9.1 Reference, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA.

Seyyed Sharifi, R. (2007). The study of the effect of salinity on germination variables of MS indices. The third conference on herbal plants, Shahed University, Tehran, p.207.

Shalhevet, J. (1993). Plant under salt and water stress. In: plant adaptation to environmental stress (edsL l. fowden, t. Mansfield, and j. Stoddard). 133- 1554. Chapman and hall.

Shao, H.B., Chu, L.Y and Jaleel, C.A. (2008). Water-deficit stress-induced anatomical changes in higher plants. C R Biologies, 331(3): 215-225.

Soltani, E., Galeshi, S., Kamkar, B and Akramghader, F. (2008). The effect of seed aging on seedling growth as effected by environmental factors in wheat. Agronomy Journal,, 45: 1103-1107.

Sosa, L., Llanes, A., Reinoso, H., Reginato, M and Luna, V. (2005). Osmotic and specific ion effect on the germination of Prospis strombulifera. Ann Bot, 96: 261-267.

Takel, A. (2000). Seedling emergence and growth of sorghum genotypes under variable soil moisture deficit. Agronomy Journal, 48: 95-102.

 Tarzi, A.M. (1995). Study of effect of salinity on constructing components of essential oil of cumin in tissue culture and whole plant. M.Sc. Thesis, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian)

Uniyal, A.R  and Nautiyal, A.R. (1998). Seed germination and seedling extension growth in ougeinia dalbergioides Benth. Under water and salinity stress. New Forests, 16: 265-272.

Young, J.A., Evans, R.A., Roundy, B.A and Cluff, G.J. (1983). Moisture stress and seed germination. USDA Agr. Res. Serv. ARM-W-36. Oakland, Ca.

Zahtabian, G.h., Azarnivand, H., Javadi, M ad Shahriari, A. (2005). Evaluation of salinity stresses effect on germination of two range species of Agropyron, Journal of Desert, 10(2): 301-310.

Zare, M., Mehrabi Oladi, A and Sharif Zade, S.H., (2007). Investigation of GA3 and kinetin effects of seed germination and seedling growth of wheat under salinity stress. Journal of Agricultural SciencesIslamic Azad Univ., 12: 855-865.

Sardoei Salehi, A., Nik zad2 M., Sabaee Fazel M., Azizi Gerdeh B and shahvardi M. (2008).Effect of Salinity Stress on Germination in Lycopersicon esculentum L. var Cal-ji. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 2(1): 1543-1550.