Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of microbiology, Kerman Science and Research branch, Islamic Azad university, kerman, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran


Phenol and phenol compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as, coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants exist. Phenol removal from industrial effluent is extremely important in protection of environment. Recently phenol biodegradation has been considered. Marine bacteria are the most important phenol biodegrader. In this study, the phenol-degrading bacteria from marine environmental samples (soil and water) were isolated from the Persian Gulf. After three passages, the bacterial growth was measured that four bacteria (F6, F10, F13, F16) has the highest rate of growth. Also, these bacteria were able to remove phenol that was measured by absorbance at 272 nm. The hydrophobicity and emulsification activity was measured in all four bacteria. Finally, after a series of biochemical tests, molecular analysis for strong bacteria in degrading phenol, 16S rRNA gene region amplified with primers specific part of the gene was performed. The sequence result of the gene bank and the highest homology (greater than 98%) were identified as species of bacteria. Genus of isolated bacteria was belonging to Nitratireductor aquimarinus, Nitratireductor aquimarius, Marine bacterium, Pseudomonas stutzeri.



Annaduraia, G., Shin Juang, R., Duu, J.,(2002). Microbiological degradation of phenol using mixed liquors of Pseudomonas putida and activated sludge. Waste Management 22, 703-710.

Hassanshahian, M., Emtiazi, G., and Cappello, S.(2012) Isolation and characterization of crude-oil-degrading bacteria from the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64, 7–12.

Hassanshahian, M., Emtiazi, G., Kermanshahi, R., and Cappello,S.(2010)“Comparison of oil degrading microbial communities in sediments from the Persian Gulf and Caspian sea”,Soil Sediment Contam, Vol. 19, No. 3,pp.277-291.

Hassanshahian, M., Tebyanian, H., Cappello, S.(2012) “  Isolation and characterization of two crude-oil degrading yeast strains, Yarrowia lipolytica PG-20 and PG-32 from Persian Gulf.”

Heinaru,E., Truu,J., Stottmeister,U., Heinaru,A.,(2000). Three types of phenol and p-cresol polluted with phenolic compounds catabolism in phenol and pcresol- degrading bacteria isolated from river water continuously polluted with phenolic compounds. FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 31: 195-205. PMID: 10719200.

Javanaud,C., Michotey,V., Guasco,S., Garcia,N., Anschutz,P., Canton,M. and Bonin,P.(2011). Anaerobic ammonium oxidation mediated by Mn-oxides: from sediment to strain level. JOURNAL   Res. Microbiol., 162 (9), 848-857.

Kahru, A., Reiman, R. and Ratsep, A. (1998). The efficiency of different phenol-degrading bacteria and activated sludges in detoxification of phenolic leachates. Chemosphere. 37, 301-318.  

Koutny, M., Ruzicka, J., Chlachula, J, (2003). Screening for phenol-degrading bacteria in the pristine soils of south Siberia. Applied Soil Ecology 23, 79-83.

Kumar, A., Kumar, S., Kumar, S. (2005) Biodegradation kinetics of phenol and catechol using Pseudomonas putida MTCC1194, Biochem. Eng. J. 22,151-159.

Maidak, B.L., Olsen, G.J., Larsen, N., (1997). The RDP Ribosomal Database Project. Nucleic. Acids Res. 25, 109-1 11.

Neujahr H.Y., Gaal, A., (1973). Phenol hydroxylase from yeast. European Journal of Biochemistry. 58, 351-357.

Põllumaa, L., Maloveryan, A., Trapido, M., Sillak, H., Kahru, A. (2001) Study of the Environmental Hazard Caused by the Oil-Shale Industry Solid Waste. ATLA, 29, 259-267.

Pruthi, V. and Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh (2003) Effect of nutrients on optimal production of biosurfactants by Pseudomonas putida—A gujarat oil field isolate. Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, 6 (1). pp. 65-68. ISSN 1097-3958.

Pruthi, V., Cameotra, S.S.,(1997). Rapid identification of biosurfactant-producing bacterial strains using a cell surface hydrophobicity technique. Biotechnol. Tech. 11, 671–674.

Quintana, M.G., Didion, C., Dalton, H.,(1997). Colorimetric method for a rapid detection of oxygenated aromatic biotransformation products. Biotechnology Technique11, 585-587.

Sá1, C.S.A., Boaventura, R.A.R.,(2001). Biodegradation of phenol by Pseudomonas putida DSM 548 in a trickling bed reactor. Biochemical Engineering Journal 9, 211-213.

Singh,A., Vinay,K., Srivastava,JN.,(2013).Assessment of Bioremediation of oil and Phenol Contents in Refinery Waste Water via Bacterial Consortium.Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology 4:145.doi:10.4172/2157-7463.1000145.

Sridevi, V., Chandana Lakshmi, M.V.V.,Manasa, M.,Sravani, M.,(2012). Metabolic pathways for the biodegredation of phenol. International Journal Of Engineering Science & Advanced Technology.2, 3:695-705.

Troussellier, M., Got, P., Mboup, M., Corbin, D., Giuliano, L., Cappello, S., Bouvy, M.,(2005). Daily bacterio plankton in a sub-Saharan estuary (Senegal River, West Africa): a mesocosm study. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 40, 13-24. 

Watanabe, K., Teramoto, M., Futamata, H., Harayama, S., (1998). Molecular detection, isolation, and physiological characterization of functionally dominant phenol-degrading bacteria in activated sludge. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 4396-4402. PMID: 9797297

Watanabe, K., Teramoto, M., Futamata, H., Harayama, S.,(1998). Molecular detection, isolation, and physiological characterization of functionally dominant phenol-degrading bacteria in activated sludge. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 4396-4402.

Whiteley, A.S., Wiles, S., Lilley K. Philip, J., Babailey, M.J., (2001). Ecological and physiological analyses of Pseudomonad species within a phenol remediation system. Journal of Microbiological Methods 44, 79-88.

Winnepenninckx, B., Backeljau, T., Dewachter, R., (1993). Extraction of high molecular weight DNA from molluscs. Trends Genet. 9, 407.

Xu R. and Obbard J.P. (2003)”Effect of nutrient amendments on indigenous hydrocarbon biodegradation in oil contaminated beach sediments”,J Environ Qual.Vol. 32, pp. 1234-124.

Yakimov, MM; Cappello, S; Crisafi, E; Tursi, A; Savini, A; Corselli C; Scarfi, S; Giuliano, L. (2006). Phylogenetic survey of metabolically active microbial communities associated with the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the Apulian Plateau, Central Mediaterranean Sea. Deep-sea research. Part I, Oceanographic research papers, 53(1), 62-75.