Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Avian Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2 Center of comparative&experimental medicine, Basic sciences in infection diseases research center, School of medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

Abstract

Pathogens are an important and significant hazard for human and animal health. In recent years, antibiotics are used to treat different types of infection caused by bacterial agents. In veterinary medicine, antibiotics injected into hatching eggs to eliminate pathogens and prevention of egg transmission of disease, but the adverse effects of drugs have always been a major concern. There is scantly information available about the safety and pathological alterations of florfenicol drug in embryonated eggs. The objective of this study was to investigate using of various dosages of florfenicol solution for in ovo administration in chicken embryo. Fertile chicken eggs were divided into four equal treatment groups as follows: group 1: no injected group. Group 2: phosphate buffered saline-injected group; whose individuals were injected with phosphate buffered saline. Groups 3 and 4 whose individuals were injected with florfenicol injectable solution at a dosage of 20 and 30 mg per Kg egg-weight, respectively. Embryos were re-incubated post-treatment and allowed to develop until day 18 after which; they were examined for macroscopic and microscopic lesions. Results showed that embryos were normal in all treatment groups. Microscopically, no lesions were also diagnosed in tissues. Based on macroscopic and microscopic findings, it is concluded that florfenicol at above-mentioned concentration is not toxic for the chicken embryo. So, florfenicol egg-injection can be used toeliminate pathogens and prevention of egg transmission of the diseasewithout any adverse effect.

Keywords

Agunos A, Léger D, Carson C (2012). Review of antimicrobial therapy of selected bacterial diseases in broiler chickens in Canada. CVJ. 53(12): 1289- 1296.

Altunsoy A, Aypak C, Azap A, Ergönül Ö, Balık İ (2011). The impact of a nationwide antibiotic restriction program on antibiotic usage and resistance against nosocomial pathogens in Turkey. Int. J. Med. Sci. 8(4): 339.

Banerjee S, Mukhopadhayay SK, Ganguly S (2013). Phytogenic Growth Promoter as Replacers for Antibiotic Growth Promoter in Poultry Birds. J. Anim. Gen. Res 1(1): 6-7.

Buscaglia C (2013). Influence of the addition of antibiotics on survival of herpevirus of turkeys. Avian Dis. 52(2): 437-436.

Colomer-Lluch M, Imamovic L, Jofre J, Muniesa M (2011). Bacteriophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes in fecal waste from cattle, pigs, and poultry. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55(10): 4908-4911.

Crespo R, Shivaprasad H, Silva Franca M (2013). Ulcerative Enteritis-like Disease Associated with Clostridium sordellii in Quail. Avian Dis. 57(3): 213-221.

Erdem H, Akova M (2012). Leading infectious diseases problems in Turkey. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 18(11): 1056-1067.

Garner DL, Evans KM, Seidel GE (2013). Sex-Sorting Sperm Using Flow Cytometry/Cell Sorting. Methods Mol. Biol. 927: 279-295.

Gharaibeh S, Al-Rashdan M (2011). Change in antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma gallisepticum field isolates. Vet. Microbiol. 150(3): 379-383.

Ghazikhanian GY, Yamamoto R, McCapes R, Dungan WM, Larsen C, Ortmayer H (1980). Antibiotic Egg Injection to Eliminate Disease II. Elimination of Mycoplasma meleagridis from a Strain of Turkeys. Avian Dis. 24(1): 48-56.

Hamburger V (1942). A manual of experimental embryology, University of Chicago Press Chicago.

Hasan B, Faruque R, Drobni M, Waldenström J, Sadique A, Ahmed KU, Islam Z, Parvez MH, Olsen B, Alam M (2011). High prevalence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli from large-and small-scale poultry farms in Bangladesh. Avian Dis. 55(4): 689-692.

Jacobsen ID, Große K, Hube B (2012). Embryonated Chicken Eggs as Alternative Infection Model for Pathogenic Fungi. Host-Fungus Interactions. Methods Mol. Biol.845:487-496.

Jones K, Thornton J, Zhang Y, Mauel M (2013). A 5-year retrospective report of Gallibacterium anatis and Pasteurella multocida isolates from chickens in Mississippi. Poult. Sci. 92(12): 3166-3171.

Kabir S (2010). Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis: a closer look at epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public. Health 7(1): 89-114.

Khalil S, Hamed E, Hassanin O (2012). Residue Withdrawal of Florfenicol from the Serum and Edible Tissues of Broiler Chickens. J. Am. Sci. 8(12): 112-123.

Lee K-W, Ho Hong Y, Lee S-H, Jang SI, Park M-S, Bautista DA, Donald Ritter G, Jeong W, Jeoung H-Y, An D-J (2012). Effects of anticoccidial and antibiotic growth promoter programs on broiler performance and immune status. Res. Vet. Sci. 93(2): 721-728.

Lee S-K, Chon J-W, Song K-Y, Hyeon J-Y, Moon J-S, Seo K-H (2013). Prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Gallinarum isolated from eggs produced in conventional or organic farms in South Korea. Poult. Sci. 92(10): 2789-2797.

Lobell R, Varma K, Johnson J, Sams R, Gerken D (1994). Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol following intravenous and intramuscular doses to cattle. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 17: 253–258.

MacDonald JM, Wang S-L (2011). Foregoing sub-therapeutic antibiotics: The impact on broiler grow-out operations. App. Eco. Perspect. Policy. 33(1): 79-98.

Marien M, Nauwynck H, Duchateau L, Martel A, Chiers K, Devriese L, Froyman R, Decostere A (2006). Comparison of the efficacy of four antimicrobial treatment schemes against experimental Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infection in turkey poults pre-infected with avian pneumovirus. Avian Pathol. 35(3): 230-237.

McCapes R, Yamamoto R, Ghazikhanian G, Dungan W, Ortmayer H (1977). Antibiotic Egg Injection to Eliminate Disease I. Effect of Injection Methods on Turkey Hatchability and Mycoplasma meleagridis Infection. Avian Dis. 21(1): 57-68.

McDougald L, Abraham M, Beckstead R (2012). An Outbreak of Blackhead Disease (Histomonas meleagridis) in Farm-Reared Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus). Avian Dis. 56(4): 754-756.

McKellar Q, Sanchez Bruni S, Jones D (2004). Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships of antimicrobial drugs used in veterinary medicine. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 27(6): 503-514.

Nascimento ER, Pereira V, Nascimento M, Barreto M (2005). Avian mycoplasmosis update. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola. 7(1): 1-9.

Nemati M (2013). Antimicrobial resistance of porteus isolates from poultry. Eur. J. Exp.Biol. 3(6): 499-500.

Obeng AS, Rickard H, Ndi O, Sexton M, Barton M (2012). Antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic grouping and virulence potential of Escherichia coli isolated from the faeces of intensively farmed and free range poultry. Vet. Microbiol. 154(3): 305-315.

Priyantha M, Vipulasiri A, Gunawardana G (2012). Salmonella control in poultry breeder farms in Sri Lanka: Effects of oral antibiotic treatment on whole blood agglutination test with Salmonella pullorum antigen. Int. J. Livestock Product. 3(2): 21-24.

Rigobelo EC, Blackall PJ, Maluta RP, Ávila FAd (2013). Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Pasteurella multocida isolated from chickens and japanese quails in Brazil. Braz. J. Microbiol. 44(1): 161-164.

Ronette G (2012). Pharmacokinetics and Bioequivalence of Florfenicol Oral Solution Formulations (Flonicol® and Veterin® 10%) in Broiler Chickens. J. Bioequivalence & Bioavailability 4(1): 1-5.

Sapkota AR, Hulet RM, Zhang G, McDermott P, Kinney EL, Schwab KJ, Joseph SW (2011). Lower prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci on US conventional poultry farms that transitioned to organic practices. Environ. Health Perspect. 119(11): 1622-1629.

Shin SJ, Kang SG, Nabin R, Kang ML, Yoo HS (2005). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of florfenicol against bacteria isolated from bovine and porcine respiratory disease. Vet. Microbiol. 106(1): 73-77.

Swayne D, Glisson JR, McDougald L, Nolan LK, Suarez DL, Nair VL (2013). Diseases of Poultry, Wiley-Blackwell.

Sweetman SC, Pharm B, PharmS F, Eds. (2009). Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. London, Pharmaceutical Press.

Switała M, Hrynyk R, Smutkiewicz A, Jaworski K, Pawlowski P, Okoniewski P, Grabowski T, Debowy J (2007). Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol, thiamphenicol, and chloramphenicol in turkeys. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 30(2): 145-150.

Tavakkoli H, Derakhshanfar A, Gooshki SN (2013). A short preliminary experimental study on teratogenic effect of methenamine in embryonic model. IJABBR. 1(12): 1523-1528.

Tavakkoli H, Derakhshanfar A, Salandari S (2014). Investigation on the using of linco-spectin solution for in ovo administration in chicken embryo. IJABBR. 2(1): 110-116.

Tavakkoli H, Derakhshanfar A, Salandari S (2014). Toxicology of urotropine in chicken embryo model. OJVR. 18(2): 109-115.

Wang GY, Tu P, Chen X, Guo YG, Jiang SX (2012). Effect of three polyether ionophores on pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in male broilers. J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 35(5): 494-501.