Document Type : Original Article
1 M.Sc. Student in Arid Regions Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran
2 Dept. Arid Regions Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran
This study was designed to investigate the effects of different tillage systems on some parameters such as soil salinity (pH, EC, SAR), soil density and nutrients in a nested experimental design with three treatments (no tillage, reduced tillage and conventional tillage) and three replications. Chenaran city fields were selected as the case study areas. Result of the statistical analysis indicates that no tillage system with 0.12, 12.04 and 360.29 mg.kg-1 of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium respectively, produced the highest levels. As in the case of the conventional tillage, the lowest amounts of soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was reached as respectively 0.07, 8.55 and 261.48 mg.kg-1. By changing tillage system from conventional tillage to no tillage, soil bulk density and porosity changed to a range of 1.41 to 1.29 gr.cm-3and 47.58 to 52.45%. Likewise, the no tillage had the highest electrical conductivity (1.78 decisiemens) and sodium adsorption ratio (9.22) and the lowest amount of acidity (7.65). In the case of the conventional tillage system, the lowest electrical conductivity (1.19 decisiemens) and sodium adsorption ratio (7.52) and the highest acidity (7.77) was observed. Although soil salinity and density under the conventional tillage treatment compared to the no tillage method show lower values, but it seems that improvement of the physiochemical properties of soil in the long-term approach is different from the short-term. So these studies on longer timescales and for different climatic conditions are recommended.
2. Asgari, H.M. 2012. The importance of soil organic matter, the key to creating drought resistant soils and sustainable food production. Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Gorgan University Press.
3. Azimzadeh, S., Kouchaki, A., Bala, M. Study the effects of different plowing
management on soil bulk density, porosity, moisture and wheat yield in a rainfed condition.Journal of agricultural breeding.2008; 4(3): 209-224.
4. Ball, B.C. 1981. Pore Characteristics of soil from two cultivated experiments as Shown by gas diffusivity and Permeability of air filled porosities. J. Soil Sci. 32: 483-498.
5. Barzegar, A. 2001. Advance soil physics, Shahid Chamran University Press, Ahvaz, Iran.
6. Blake, G.R., and K.H. Hartge. 1986. Bulk density. p. 363-375. In: A. Klute Ed. Methods of Soil Analysis Part I: Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2 d ed. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.
7. Blevins, R.L. and Frye, W.W. Conservation tillage an ecological approach to soil management. Adv. Agron.,1993; 51: 33-78.
8. Bremner, J.M., Mulvaney, C.S. Nitrogen-Total. In: A.L. Page, R.H. Miller (Eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI. 1982; 595-624.
9. Cassel, D.K. Tillage effect on soil bulk density and mechanical impedance. In Predicting Tillage Effects on Soil Physical Properties and Processes, eds. P.W. Unger and D.M. Van Doran Jr. Madison. W.I: American Society of Agronomy, 1982; 55-67.
10. Chatterjee, A.andLal, R. On farm assessment of tillage impact on soil carbon and associated soil quality parameters. Soil Till. Res., 2009; 104: 270-277.
11. Chen H, Hou R, Gong Y, Li H, Fan M, Kuzyakov Y. Effects of 11 years of
conservation tillage on soil organic matter fractions in wheat monoculture in Loess Plateau of China. Soil Till. Res.2009; 106:85-94.
12. Danielson, R.E., and Sutherland, P.L. Prosity; in“:Klut.A. 1986. Method of soil analyis, part 1- Physical and mineralogical method. Part one. American Society of Agronomy, INC. Soil Science Society of America, INC. Madison Wisconsin USA. 1973; 377-381.
13. De Vita, P., Di Paolo, E., Fecondo, G., Di Fonzo, N. and Pisante, M. 2007. No tillage and conventional tillage effects on durum wheat yield, grain quality and soil moisture content in southern Italy. Soil and Tillage Research, 92: 69-78.
14. Frye, W.W., Burnett, O.L., and Buntley, G.J. 1985. Restoration of crop productivity on eroded or degraded soils. In Soil Erosion and Crop Productivity, eds. R.F. Follet and B.A. Stewart. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy Journal. Pp: 335-356.
15. Giddens, J. 1957. Rate of loss of carbon from Georgia soils.Proceedings of Soil Science Society of America Journal. 21: 513-515.
16. Hammel, J.E. 1995. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on winter production in northern Idaho. Agronomy Journal, 87: 16-22.
17. Hedley, M.J., Stewart, J.W.B., and Chauhan, B.S. 1982. Changes in organic and inorganic phosphorus fractions induced by cultivation and laboratory incubations. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 46: 970-976.
18. Hulugalle, N.R., Entwistle, p. 1997. Soil properties, nutrient uptake and crop growth in an irrigated Vertisol after nine years of minimum tillage. Soil and Tillage Research. 42: 15-32.
19. Jafari, M. 2000. Saline Soils in natural resources (Identify and modify them). Tehran University Press.
20. Javanshir, A., Shekari, F., Dabbagh Mohammadi Nasab, A., Raei, V.
2004. Agro forestry principles, Translator: Zanjan University Press.
21. Kjeldahl, Johan Z. “A new method for the determination of nitrogen in
organic bodies.” Analytical Chemistry 22 (1883): 366.
22. Koochaki AS, Nakh forosh As, Zarif ketabi C. In 1997. Agriculture organic
(translation). Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press.
23. Lakhdar, A., Hafsi, C., Rahbi, M., Debez, A., Montemurro, F., Abdelly, A., Jedidi., N. and Overghi, Z. 2008. Application of municipal soil waste compost reduces the negative effects of saline water in Hordeum maritimum L., Bioresour . Technol. 99.
24. Li, W.F., Gu, J.F., Yang, R.Q., 2006. The analysis on feasibility of managing saline or Alkaline soil by conservation tillage. Journal of Agricultural Mechanization Research 7, 223 (in Chinese).
25. Li, Z.J., Sun, W.Y., Ma, W.P., Yin, H.J., Li, H.J., Qu, S.G., Cao, W.D., 2010.
Review and Prospects of improvement technology for saline-alkali soil. Shandong Agricultural Sciences 2, 273–277 (in Chinese).
26. Lopez-Fando, C. andPardo., M.T. Change in soil chemical characteristics with different tillage practices in a semi-arid environment. Soil Till. Res., 2009; 104: 278-284.
27. Ma, C., Ma, L.Y., Liu, T.X., Zuo, H.J., Zhang, B., Liu, Y., 2010. Research progress on saline Land improvement technology. World Forestry Research 23 (2) 28–32 (in Chinese).
28. Mohamadi, Kh.,Nabiolahi, K., Agha Alikhani, M., Khormali, F. Study the effect of different soil management practices on soil physical attributes and wheat yield and production efficiency. Journal of Plant Production. 2009; 16(4): 77-91.
29. Mousavibougar, A., Jahansouz, M., Mehrvar, M., Hoseinipour, R., Madadi, R. Study of the soil physical attributes and yield efficieny of different varieties of wheat under different soil management practices. Journal of Agroecology. 2012; 8(2): 11-20.
30. Niu, D.L., Wang, Q.J., 2002. Research progress on saline-alkali field control. Canadian Journal ofSportSciences33(6)449–455(inChinese).
31. Olsen, S. R., and Sommers, L.E. 1982. Phosphorus.In A. L. Page, R. H. Miller, and D. R. Keeney.eds., Methods of soil analysis (pp. 403-430). Madison: Soil Science Society ofAmerica.
32. Qingjie, W., Caiyun, L., Hongwen, L., Jin, H., Sarker, Kh., Rasaily, R., Zhonghui, L., Xiaodong, Q., Hui, L., and Mchugh, A. 2014. The effects of no-tillage with subsoiling on soil properties and maize yield:12-Year experiment on alkaline soils of Northeast China.Soil and Tillage Research. 137: 43-49.
33. Rasnak, M. , W.W. Frye. D.C. Ditsch, and r. L. Blevins. 1986. soil erosion with different tillage and cropping system. Soil science news and views. Dep. Agron. University of Kentueky, Lexington
34. Rhoton, F.E., Bruce, R.R., Buehring, N.W., Elkins, G.B., Langdale, C.W., and Tyler, D.D. 1993. Chemical and physical characteristics of four soil types under conventional and no-tillage systems. Soil and Tillage Research. 28: 51-61.
35. Rowel, D.L. 1994. Soil Science: Methods and applications. Longman Scientific and Technical.
36. Selles, F., Kochhann, R.A., Denardin, J.E., Zenter, R.P., and Faganello, A. 1997. Distribution of phosphorus in a Brazilian oxisol under different tillage systems.Soil and Tillage Research. 44: 23-34.
37. Unger, P.W. 1978. Straw mulch rate effects on soil water storage and sorghum Yield. Soil Science Society of American Journal 42: 486-491.
38. Unger, P.W. 1991. Organic matter, pH and nutrient distribution in no and
conventional tillage semi-arid soils.Agronomy Journal. 83: 186-192.