Document Type: Case Report

Authors

1 M.Sc. Student in Arid Regions Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran

2 Dept. Arid Regions Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran

3 Dept. Agronomy, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran

Abstract

This research delves into investigating the effects of different soil management practices on soil physical properties, yield and yield’s components of irrigated wheat. This experimental design was administered in the form of the nested testing with three treatments (no tillage, low tillage and conventional tillage) and three replicates in some of the farmlands of Chenran Township. The results obtained showed that different soil management practices could cause significant changes in the soil bulk density, porosity and weighted moisture content. With the change of management type from no tillage to conventional tillage, soil bulk density declined from 1.41 to 1.29 gr.cm-3 while soil porosity rose from 47.58 to 52.45 %. Weighted moisture content in the conventional management system produced the maximum quantity (that is 15.35%) while for the no tillage system this declined to as low as (6.75%). Different systems of soil management significantly affect yield and yield components of wheat. In this case, the conventional tillage produced the maximum level of grain yield (6825 kg.ha-1) as opposed to the no tillage system (5220.83 kg.ha-1). The conventional tillage system produced the highest level of thousand-grain weight (43.38g) as well as harvested crop (25.57%). Although the conventional tillage compared with no tillage reached higher levels of crop and crop yield but it seems that the results of long runs are quite different with those of short term application. On this ground, performing studies of longer time intervals for various climatic conditions is recommended.

Keywords

1. Allen. R. R., 1988. Performance of three wheat seeders in conservation tillage
residue. Appl. Eng. Agric., 4 :191-1962. Asghari, j., Karimi, E. and Mousavi, B. 1992. Effect of different tillage methods
on wheat yield and soil water content and bulk density in fallow - wheat in
Maragheh. Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources Journal .
No. 60. Pp. 119-128.
3. Azimzadeh, S., Kouchaki, A., Bala, M. 2008. Study the effects of different plowing management on soil bulk density, porosity, moisture and wheat yield in a rainfed condition.Journal of agricultural breeding. Vol. 4, No. 3, pages: 209-224.
4. Rahman Barzegar, A., J. Malcolm Oades, Pichu Rengasamy and Lynne Giles. 1994. Effect of sodicity and salinity on disaggregation and tensile strength of an Alfisol under different cropping systems. Soil and Tillage Research 32: 329-345.
5. Blake, G.R., and K.H. Hartge. 1986. Bulk density. p. 363-375. In: A. Klute Ed. Methods of Soil Analysis Part I: Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2 d ed. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.
6. Boloor, E., Asgari, H., Kiani, F. 2013a. Assessment of the Influences of Different Soil Tillage Systems on Some Soil’s Chemical Properties in a Rain-fed
Agricultural System, Northern Iran (Case study: Kalale district, Golestan
province). International Journal of Agriculture and CropSciences. . Vol. 6, No. 4, pages191-196.
7. Boloor, E., Asgari, H., Kiani, F. 2013b. Assessment of different soil management practices on soil physical properties, microbial respiration and crop yield (A case study: Rain-fed agricultural lands of Kalale district, Golestan province). InternationalJournalof AgricultureandCropSciences. . Vol. 5, No. 24, pages: 2939-2946.
8. Bour, Gh., Khorgami, A. 2008. Investigating the effect of different tillage methods on yield and yield components of rainfed safflower in Khorramabad. Agricultural Research , Vol. One, No. 1
9. Cassel, D.K. 1982. Tillage effect on soil bulk density and mechanical impedance. In Predicting Tillage Effects on Soil Physical Properties and Processes, eds. P.W. Unger and D.M. Van Doran Jr. Madison. W.I: American Society of Agronomy, pages: 55-67.
10. Danielson, R.E., and Sutherland, P.L. Prosity; in“:Klut.A. 1986. Method of soil analyis, part 1- Physical and mineralogical method. Part one. American Society of Agronomy, INC. Soil Science Society of America, INC. Madison Wisconsin USA. 1973; 377-381.
11. De Vita, P., Di Paolo, E., Fecondo, G., Di Fonzo, N. and Pisante, M. 2007. No tillage and conventional tillage effects on durum wheat yield, grain quality and soil moisture content in southern Italy. Soil and Tillage Research, 92: 69-78.
12. Dickey, E.C. 1983. Yield comparison between continuous no till and tillage
rotation .Trans of the ASAE. 26: 1682-1686.
13. Duiker, S.W. and Lal, R. 1999. Corn Crop residue and tillage effects on carbon sequestration in a Luvisol in central Ohio. Soil & Tillage Research, 52: 73-81.
14. Farooq, U., Sharif, M., and Erenstein, O. 2007. Adoption and impacts of zero tillage in the rice–wheat zone of irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. Research Report. CIMMYT India and RWC, New Delhi, India.
15. Fenster, C. R., C. E. Domingo, and O.C. Burnside. 1969. Weed Control and Plant Residue Maintenance with Various Tillage Treatments in a Winter Wheat-Fallow Rotation. Agronomy Journal, 61: 250-259.
16. Gholami, A., Asgari, H., Zeinali, E. 2013. Effects of short term soil management practices on soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration and some physical and chemical characteristics as well as soil aggregate stability in KhorasanRazavi Province, Iran. International Journal of Agriculture and CropSciences. . Vol. 5, No. 21, pages:
2622-2629.
17. Gholami Hossein Pour, F. Shabanpour, M.,Peyman, H. 2011. Comparison of the effects of four types of soil managements on Bersim clover yield in the second culture and its effects on soil density and porosity. The Twelfth Congress of Soil Science, Iran, Tabriz . Soil physics and soil-plant-water relations.
18. Hadas ,A.,1975.Water transfer to germinating seeds as affected by soil hydraulic properties and seed water contact impedance.Ann.Ins.Cerc.Pedol.Agrochem.,41:55-64.
19. Halvorson, A.D., Black, A.L., Krupinsky, J.M., Merrill, S.D., Wienhold, B.G., and Tanaka, D.L. 2000. Spring wheat response to tillage and nitrogen fertilization in rotation with sunflower and winter wheat. Agronomy Journal, 92: 136-144.
20. Hammel, J.E. 1995. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on winter
production in northern Idaho. Agronomy Journal, 87: 16-22.
21. Hemmat, A. 1996. Effects of seedbed preparation and planting methods on emergence of irrigated winter wheat. Iranian J. Agriculture Sci. 27: 4. 55-68.
22. Karlen, D. L., and D. T. Gooden. 1987. Tillage system for wheat production in southeastern Costal Plains. Agronomy Journal, 79: 582-587.
23. Khosravani, A., M. Loghvi, and A. Solhjoo. 1998. Evaluation and comparison of traction performance of middle power tractors in Iran. In Proc. 1st National Congress of Agricultural Machinery Engineering and Mechanization, 34-41, Karaj, Iran.
24. Kouchaki, AS., Nakh forosh, A.S., Zarif ketabi, C. In 1997. Agriculture organic (translation). Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press.
25. Lal, R., Logan, T.J., and Fausey, N.R. 1989. Long term tillage and wheel traffic effects on poorly drained mollicOchraqualf in north-west Ohio. Soil physical properties root distribution and grain yield of corn and soybean. Soil and Tillage Research. 14: 341-358.
26. Lavimi, N., Safari, M., Heidarpour, N. 2011. A comparison between different soil management practices on rainfed wheat in gravely fields of a tropical region. Journal of Agriculture Machineries. Vol. 1, No. 2, pages 110-121.
27. Lindemann, W.C., Randall, G.W., and Ham, G.E. 1982. Tillage Effects on Soybean Nodulation, N2(C2H4) Fixation, and Seed Yield. Agronomy Journal. Vol. 74, No. 6, pages 1067-1070.
28. Mohammadi, Kh., Nabiolahi, K., Agha Alikhani, M., Khormali, F. 2009. Study the effect of different soil management practices on soil physical attributes and wheat yield and production efficiency. Journal of Plant Production.Vol.16, No. 4.
29. Mohammadzamani, S, Ayoubi S h. A. , Khormali F. 2007.. Examining the spatial variability of soil and wheat grain yield in cultivated land of Sorkhankalate, Golestan Province. Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources . No. 40. Pp. 79-92.
30. MousaviBougar, B. , Jahansooz , B. , Mehrvar, M. Hoseini Pour, R., Madadi, R. 2012. Study of soil physical properties and wheat yield under different tillage systems . Journal of Agronomy , Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 20-11.
31. Rahimzadeh, R., Navid, H. 2011. Implications of different soil management practices on clayey soil characteristics and a rotation of wheat-legumes in a rainfed condition.Journal of agricultural science and sustainable production.Vol.2, No. 1.
32. Rasmussen, P.E., and Collins, H.P. 1991. Long-term impacts of tillage, fertilizer and crop residue on soil organic matter in temperate semiarid region.Advances in Agronomy. 45: 93-134.
33. Sadeghnejad, H.R., Eslami, K. 2006. Yield compared with tillage change.Journal - Research of Agricultural Sciences.Year12, No. (1). Pp.103-112.
34. Safadoust, A., Mahboubi, A., Mosadeghi, M., and Nouruzi, A. Short term effect of tillage systems and organic matter on the corn length root and soil physical properties. Soil Conservation and Watershed Research Institute. In: 9th soil science congress of Iran. 2004; 134-135.
35. Schllinger, W.F. 2005. Tillage method and sowing rate relations for dryland spring wheat, barley, and oat. Crop Science, 45: 2636-2643.
36. Smith, JL., Elliott, L.F. 1990. Tillage and residue management effect on soil organic matter dynamics in semiarid regions. Advances in Soil Sci. 13: 69-87.
37. Tabatabaeifar, A., Nederlo, L., Javadia Kia, P., Shirkavand, H. 2008. soil
management and cropping systems. Isfahan University Jihad.
38. Tackett, J.L., and Pearson, R.W. 1964. Oxygen Requirements of Cotton Seedling Roots for Penetration of Compacted Soil Cores. Soil Sci.Soc.Am.Proc. 28: 600-605.
39. Unger, P.W. 1978. Straw mulch rate effects on soil water storage and sorghum Yield. Soil Science Society of American Journal 42: 486-491.
40. Unger, P.W., and Jones, O.R. 1998. Long-term tillage and cropping systems affect bulk density and penetration resistance of soil cropped to dryland wheat and grain sorghum. Soil Tillage Research. 45: 39-57. 
41. Ussiri, A.N., and Lal, R. 2009. Long-term tillage effects on soil carbon storage and carbon dioxide emissions in continuous corn cropping system from an alfisol in Ohio. Soil & Tillage Research, 104: 39-47.
42. Ossible M., Crookston,R.K. and Larson, W.E. 1992. Sub surface compaction reduces the root and shoot growth and grain yield of wheat.Agronomy Journal. 84: 34-38.
43. Willhelm, W.W., Bouzerzour,H. and Power, J.F. 1989. Soil disturbance residue management effect on winter wheat growth and yield.Agronomy Journal. 81: 581-
588.
44. Wittsell, L.E., and Hobbs, J.A. 1965. Soil compaction effects on field plant growth.
Agronomy Journal. 54: 534-537.