Document Type: Original Article


1 Ph.D. student in Watershed management Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agriculture Science and Natural Resources University, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Shiraz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Desert Management, Shiraz, Fars, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Soil and Water Research, Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Bandar-e-Abbas, Hormozgan, Iran


Current study was carried out with aim to evaluate the effect of pressurized irrigation methods and furrow irrigation method with municipal effluent on distribution of salinity and moisture in the soil profile. The experimental study was designed by split plot layout with three irrigation methods including furrow, surface drip (SD) irrigation and subsurface drip irrigation (SSD) and two water qualities (municipal effluent and fresh water) in a sugar beet field located in Corbal plain, Iran. Soil sampling was conducted in two sessions (prior to irrigation and after harvesting) at three depths of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm and 15 points around areas where water leaked. Variance analysis of salinity showed a significant difference (p < 0.01) between irrigation methods, also between two water qualities in terms of salinity concentration, for three sampled depths of soil. The maximum value of salinity was found at the depth of 0-20 cm in subsurface drip irrigation by 1.66 dS/m, and the minimum value of salinity was found at the depth of 20-40 cm in furrow irrigation by 0.92 dS/m. Irrigation by municipal effluent caused a higher salinity concentration in the soil compared to fresh water regardless to the amount of water. Leaching operations, reducing the irrigation period and increasing the irrigation frequency, conducting researches and promoting the use of effluent are recommended in conclusion


Abdel Gavwad, G., Arsalan, A. Kaadouri, F. (2005). The effect of saline irrigation water management and salt tolerant tomato varieties on sustainable production of tomato in Syria. Agricultural Water
Management. 78, 39-53.
Bouri, S., Abida, H. Khanfir, H. (2008). Impacts of wastewater irrigation in arid and semi arid regions: case of Sidi Abid region, Tunisia. Environmental Geology. 53, 1421–1432.
Fernandez-Galvez, J., Clayton, J. A. R. and Aranzazu, P. (2010). Soil Quality as Affected by Wastewater Irrigation in a Semi-arid Agricultural Land. Challanges for soil management Book Series: Advances in Geoecology. 41, 63-70.
Genhua, N. and Raul, C. (2010). Growth and Physiological Responses of Landscape Plants to Saline Water Irrigation: A Review. Hortscience. 45 (11), 1065-1609.
Hassanli, A. M., Ahmadirad, S. and Beecham, S. (2009). Evaluation of the influence of irrigation methods and water quality on sugar beet yield and water use efficiency. Agricultural Water Management. 97, 357–362.
Hassanli, A. M., Javan, M. and Saadat, Y. (2008). Reuse of municipal effluent with drip irrigation and evaluation the effect on soil properties in a semi-arid area. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 144, 151–158.
Klay, S., Charef, A., Ayed, L., Houman, B. and Rezgui, F. (2010). Effect of irrigation with treated wastewater on geochemical properties (saltiness, C, N and heavy metals) of isohumic soils (Zaouit Sousse perimeter, Oriental Tunisia). Desalination. 253, 180–187.
Murtaza, G., Ghafoor, A. and Qadir, M. (2006). Irrigation and soil management strategies for using saline – sodoc water in cotton – wheat rotation. Agricultural water management. 81, 98-114.
Perez, G., Martinez, M. J. and Sanchez, A. (2003). The role of low quality irrigation water in desertification of semi-arid zones in Murica, SE Spain. Geoderma. 21, 109-125.
Pescod, M. B. (1992). Wastwwater treatment and use in agriculture. FAO, Irrigation and Drainage paper. 47, 113 P.
Qadir, M., Ghafoor, A. and Murtaza, G. (2001). Use of saline – sodic waters through phytoremediation of calcareus saline – sodic soils. Agricultural water management. 50, 197-210.
USEPA (2002). Water supply and demand in the United States. Available on