Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 M.Sc. of Watershed management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, P. O. Box: 737, Sari, I.R.Iran

2 Assisstant professor, Department of Watershed management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, I.R.Iran

3 Assisstant professor, Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Gorgan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Gorgan, I.R.Iran

Abstract

Forests are an important economic source for human and have key role in nutrient cycle, hydrology and ecosystem performance, any interference in this vital ecosystem causes to damage to forests. Mechanical logging and road construction in forest areas have led to much soil compaction. Soil physical and chemical properties were studied in parts of road and non-road in the Darabkola forest of Iran. To investigate the soil properties, sixty samples of the top soil (0–20 cm deep) in two parts of forest ground and forest road surface were collected by cylinder for physical and chemical analysis: forest ground (30 samples) and forest road surface (30 samples). Also, soil compaction and runoff production investigated in mentioned parts. Therefore, produced runoff volume due rainfall in two studied parts was measured in equal area after the natural rainfall. The results showed that there was significant difference among soil different properties rate and too produced runoff rate in two studied parts. Correlation matrix results in part of forest road indicated that there was significant negative and positive correlation between runoff and silt, clay, bulk density, lime and gravel, organic matter, PH, EC respectively and too in part of forest ground there was significant negative and positive correlation between runoff and moisture, clay, silt and gravel, organic matter, PH, EC respectively

Keywords

Arna´ez, J., Larreab, V., and Ortigosaa, L., (2004). Surface runoff and soil erosion on unpaved forest roads from rainfall simulation tests in northeastern Spain. Catena 57: 1-14.
Attou, F., Bruand, A., and Le-Bissonnais, Y., (1998). Effect of clay content and silt-clay fabric on stability of artificial aggregates. Euro. Journal of Soil Sciences 49: 569-577.
Adekalu, K.O., Okunade, D.A., and Osunbitan, J.A., (2006). Compaction and mulching effects on soil loss and runoff from two southwestern Nigeria agricultural soils. Geoderma 137: 226-130.
Arnau-Rosalen, E., Calvo-Cases, A., Biox-Fayos, C., and Sarah, P., 2008. Analysis of soil surface component patterns affecting runoff generation. An example of methods applied to Mediterranean hill slopes in Alicante (Spain). Geomorphology 101: 595-606.
Bhupinderpal, S., Hedley, M.J., Saggar, S., and Francis, G.S., (2004). Chemical fractionation to characterize changes in sulphur and carbon in soil caused by management. Eur. Journal of Soil Sciences 55: 79-90.
Bagarello, V., Di-Stefano, C., Ferro, V., Kinnell, P.I.A., Pampalone, V., Porto, P., and Todisco, F., (2011). Predicting soil loss on moderate slopes using an empirical model for sediment concentration. Journal of Hydrology 400: 267–273.
Cerdà, A., (2007). Soil water erosion on road embankments in eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environment 378: 151–155.
Cao L, Zhang K, Zhang W. (2009). Detachment of road surface soil by flowing water. Catena, 76: 155–162.
Duiker, S-W., Flanagan, D-C., and Lal, R., (2001). Erodibility and infiltration characteristics of five major soils of southwest Spain. Catena 45(2): 103-121.
Forest management plan handbook of Darabkola, (2003). The natural resources general office of Mazandaran province. Department of Forests and Rangelands. 325p. (In Persian).
Fu, B., L.T.H., Newham, C.E., Ramos-Scharro´n, (2010). A review of surface erosion and sediment delivery models for unsealed roads. Environmental Modelling & Software, 25: 1-14.
Gresswell S, Heller D, Swanston DN. (1979). Mass movement response to forest management in the central Oregon Coast Ranges. Resource Bulletin PNW-84. Portland: USDA Forest Service.
Gucinski H, Furniss MJ, Ziemer RR, Brookes M. (2001). Forest roads: a synthesis of scientific information. Gen. Techn. Rep. PNW-GTR-509. US Department of Agriculture. Portland: Forest Service.

Froehlich W. (1995). Sediment dynamics in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. In: Foster IDL, Gurnell AM, Web BW, editors. Sediment and Water Quality in River Catchments. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 
Foltz, R.B., Copeland, N.S., and Elliot, W.J., (2009). Reopening abandoned forest roads in northern Idaho, USA: Quantification of runoff, sediment concentration, infiltration, and interrill erosion parameters. Journal of Environmental Management 90: 2542-2550.
Jordán-López, A., Martinez-Zavala, L., and Bellinfante, N., (2009). Impact of different parts of unpaved forest roads on runoff and sediment yield in a Mediterranean area. Journal of Science of the Total
Lotfalian, M., Parsakhoo, A., Kavian, A., and Hosseini, S.A., (2012). Runoff and Sediment Concentration of the Different Parts of a Road in Hyrcanian Forests. Forestry Studies in China, FSC-2012-0039.
Jones, J., Swanson, F., Wemple, B., and Snyder, K., (2000). Effects of roads on hydrology, geomorphology and disturbance patches in stream networks. Conservation Biology 14: 76-85.
Kolka, R.K., and Smith M.F., (2004). Effects of forest road amelioration techniques on soil bulk density, surface runoff, sediment transport, soil moisture and seedling growth. Forest Ecology and Management 202: 313–323.
Ke, J., Wim, M.C., Donald, G., Wouter, S., Stefaan, D.N., Junjie, L., Tineke, B., Huijum, W., Dianxiong,C., Jiyun, J., and Roger, H., (2008). Soil management effects on runoff and soil loss from field rainfall simulation. 75: 191-199.
Luce, C.H., Wemple, B.C., (2001). Introduction to special issue on hydrologic and geomorphic effects of forest roads. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26: 111–113.
Megahan, W.F., Seyedbagheri, K.A., Dodson, P.C., (1983). Long term erosion on granitic roadcuts based on exposed tree roots. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 8: 19–28.
Dunne, T., 1979. Sediment yield and land use in tropical catchments. Journal of Hydrology 42: 281–300.
Eswaran, H., Lal, R., Reich, P.F., (2001). Land degradation: an overview. In: Bridges, E.M., Hannam, I.D., Oldeman, L.R., Pening de Vries, F.W.T., Scherr, S.J., Sompatpanit, S. (Eds.), Responses to Land Degradation. Proceedings 2nd International Conference on Land Degradation and Desertification, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Oxford Press, New Dehli, India.
Lal, R., (1998). Soil erosion impact on agronomic productivity and environment quality. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 17(4): 319–464.
Lal, R., Stewart, B.A. (Eds.), (1994). Soil Processes and Water Quality. Adv. Soil Sci. CRC/Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. 398 pp.
Syvitski, J.P.M., Vörösmarty, C.J., Kettner, A.J., Green, P., (2005). Impact of humans on the flux of terrestrial sediment to the global coastal ocean. Science 308: 376–380.
Croke J., Hairsine P., and Fogarty P. (2001). Soil recovery from track construction and harvesting changes in surface infiltration, erosion and delivery rates with time. Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 143, No. 1-3, pp. 3–12.
Demir M., Makineci E., and Yilmaz E. (2007). Investigation of timber harvesting impacts on herbaceous cover, forest floor and surface soil properties on skid road in an oak (Quercus petrea L.) stand. Building
and Environment, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 1194–1199.
James A. B., Ferreira N. J., and Graham J. (2004). Effects of near-surface environmental conditions on instability of an unsaturated soil slope. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 1111–1126.
James D. M. and McNeil R. (2006). Soil disturbance and hill slope sediment transport after logging of a severely burned site in Northeastern Oregon. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp.123–133.
Mahmoudzadeh A. (2007). Vegetation cover plays the most important role in soil erosion control. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 388–392.
Sui J., He Y. and Karney B. W. (2008). Flow and high sediment yield from the Huangfuchuan watershed. International Journal of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 149–160.
Refahi, H. 2006. Water erosion control. Publication of Tehran Univ. 574 p. (in Persian)
Meyer, L.D., and Harmon, W.C., (1984). Susceptibility of Agricultural Soil to Interrill Erosion. Journal of Soil Science Society of America 48: 1152-1157.
Merzouk, A., and Blake, G.R., 1991. Indices for the estimation of inter rill erodibility of Moroccan soils. Catena 18: 537-550.
Martz, L.W., (1992). The variation of soil erodibility with slope position in a cultivated Canadian prairie landscape. Earth Surf. Proc. Landf. 17: 543-556.
Montgomery, D.R., (1994). Road surface drainage, channel initiation, and slope instability, Water Resource 30: 1925-1932.
Matangaran, J.R., and Kobayashi, H., (1999). The effect of tractor logging on forest soil compaction and growth of Shorea selanica seedlings in Indonesia. J. For. Res. 4: 13-15.
MacDonald, L.H., Sampson, R.W., and Anderson, D.M., (2001). Runoff and road erosion at the plot and road segment scales, ST John, Us Virgin Islands, Earth Surface Process Landforms 26: 251-272.
Martinez-Zavala, L., Jordán-López, A., and Bellinfante, N., (2008). Seasonal variability of runoff and soil loss on forest road backslopes under simulated rainfall. Catena 74: 73-79.
Norton, D., Shainberg, I., Cihacek, L., and Edwards, J.H., (1999). Erosion and soil chemical properties. Soil Water Conservation Society, 39-56 pp.
Naghdi, R., Bagheri, I., Lotfalian, M., and Setodeh, B., (2009). Rutting and soil displacement caused by 450C Timber Jack wheeled skidder (Asalem forest in northern of Iran). Journal of Forest Science 55(4):177–183. (In Persian)
Megahan, W.F., M.D., Wilson, S.B., Monsen, (2001). Erosion on steep, granitic roadcuts in Idaho. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 26(2):153-163.
Parsakhoo, A., S.A., Hosseini, M., Lotfalian, H., Jalilvand, (2009). Soil loss and displacement by heavy equipment in forest road subgrading projects, International Journal of Sediment Research, 24: 227-235 pp.
Reid, L. M., and Dunne, T. (1984). Sediment production from forest road surfaces. Water Resour Res. 20:11.1753–61.
Hosseini, S.A., Omidvar, E., Naghavi, H. and Parsakhoo, A. (2012). Estimation of Sediment Yield from Forest Roads Using SEDMODL. J. of Wood & Forest Science and Technology 19(1): 23-41.
Kavian, A., Azmodeh, A., Soleimani, K. and Vahabzadeh, Gh. (2010). Effect of soil properties on runoff and soil erosion in forest lands. Journal of Range and Watershed Management (Iranian Journal of Natural Resources) 63(1): 89-104.
Larsen MC, Parks JE. (1997). How wide is a road? The association of roads and mass-wasting in a forested montane environment. Earth Surf Process Landf; 22: 835–48.
La Marche, J.L., Lettenmaier, D.P., (2001). Effects of forest roads on flood flows in the Deschutes River.
Washington. Earth Surf. Proc. Land 26: 115–134.
Sidle RC, Pearce AJ, O, Loughlin CL. (1985). Hillslope stability and land use. Water Resources Monograph Series No. 11. Washington DC: American Geophysical Union.
Parsakhoo, A., Lotfalian, M., Kavian, A., Hosseini, S.A. Demir, M. (2011). Prediction of the soil erosion
risk in a forest and sediment yield from road network through GIS and SEDMODL. International Journal of Sediment Research. Code No. 1131.
Ramos, M.C., Nacci, S., and Pal, I., (2000). Soil sealing and its influence on erosion rates for some soils in the Mediterranean area. Soil Sciences 165: 398-403.
Ramos-Scharrón, C.E., and MacDonald, L.H., (2005). Measurement and prediction of sediment production from unpaved roads, St John, US Virgin Islands, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 30:1283–1304.
Rumpel, C., Chabbi, A., Nunan, N., and Dignac, M.F., (2009). Impact of land use change on themolecular composition of soil organic matter. Journal of Analitical and Applied Pyrolysis 85: 431-434.
Ramos-Scharrón, C.E., (2010). Sediment production from unpaved roads in a sub-tropical dry setting Southwestern Puerto Rico. Catena 82: 146-158.
Siegrist, S., Schaub, D., Pfiffner, L., and Mader, P., 1998. Does organic agriculture reduce soil erodibility? The results of a long-term field study on loess in Switzerland. Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment 69: 253-264.
Santos, F.L., Reis, J.L., Martins, O.C., Castanheria, N.L., and Serralherio, R.P., 2003. Comparative assessment of infiltration, runoff and erosion of sprinkler irrigation soils. Biosystems Engineering 86(3):355-364.
Sowa, J., and Kulak, D., 2008. Probability of occurrence of soil disturbance during timber harvesting. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 29(1): 29-39.
Sakai, H., Nordfjell, T., Suadicani, K., Talbot, B., and Bøllehuus, E., 2008. Soil compaction on forest soils from different kinds of tires and tracks and possibility of accurate estimate. Croatian Journal of
Forest Engineering 29(1): 15-27.
Shi, X.Z., Wang, K., Warner, E.D., Yu, D.S., Wang, H.J., Yang, R.W., Liang, Y., and Shi, D.M., 2008.
Relationship between soil erosion and distance to roadways in undeveloped areas of China. Catena 72: 305-313.
Vahabi, J., and Mahdian, M.H., 2008. Rainfall simulation for the study of the effects of efficient factors on runoff rate. Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Center 95: 1439-1445.
Vahabi, J., and Nikkami, D., 2008. Assessing dominant factors affecting soil erosion using a portable rainfall simulator. International Journal of Sediment Research 23: 376-386.
Ward, T.J., and Bolton, S.M., 1991. Hydrology parameter for selected in Arizona and New Mexico as determined by rainfall Simulation. New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute. 19 p.
Wischmeier WH, Smith DD. 1978. Predicting rainfall erosion losses[R]. USDA Agricultural Handbook, No 537, U.S. Govt. Print Office, Washington, DC. Sci. And Educ. 357, 58pp.
Walling, E.D., 1997. In: Walling, D.E., Probst, J.L. (Eds.), The response of sediment yields to environmental change: Human Impact on Erosion and Sedimentation, 245. IAHS Publication, 77–89 pp.
Walling, D.E., Fang, D., 2003. Recent trends in the suspended sediment loads of the world's rivers. Global and Planetary Change 39: 111–126.
Wemple, B.C., Jones, J.A., Grant, G.E., 1996. Channel network extension by logging roads in two basins, western Cascades. Oregon. Water Resour. Bull. 32: 1195–1207.
Wemple, BC. 1994. Hydrologic integration of forest roads with stream networks in two basins, Western Cascades, Oregon. M.Sc. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
Zhang, K., Li, S., Peng, W., and Yu, B., 2004. Erodibility of agriculture soils and loess plateau of China, Soil & Tillage Research 76: 157-165.
Ziegler AD, Sutherland RA, Giambelluca TW. 2000a. Runoff generation and sediment production on unpaved roads, footpaths and agricultural land surfaces in Northern Thailand. Earth Surf Process Landf;
25: 519–34.
Ziegler AD, Sutherland RA, Giambelluca TW. 2001. Interstorm surface preparation and sediment detachment by vehicle traffic on unpaved mountain roads. Earth Surf Process Landf; 26: 235–50.
Ziegler, A.D., Sutherland, R.A., Giambelluca, T.W., 2000. Runoff generation and sediment production on unpaved roads, footpaths and agricultural land surfaces in northern Thailand. Earth Surf Proc Land 25:
519–534.
Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W., Sutherland, R.A., 2001. Erosion prediction on unpaved mountain roads in northern Thailand: validation of dynamic erodibility modeling using KINEROS2. Hydrol Process 15:337–358.
Ziegler, A.D., Giambelluca, T.W., 1997. Importance of rural roads as source areas for runoff in mountainous areas of northern Thailand. J. Hydrol. 196: 204–229.