Document Type: Review Article


Young Researchers and Elites Club, Sirjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sirjan, Iran


Animal agricultural production systems are major sources of nonpoint pollution affecting quality of water sources. Nitrogen has been identified as the foremost source of nonpoint water pollution  and the potential negative impacts of N have become an area of public concern. protein degradation from feed ingredients is an important factorinfluencing AA supply to the duodenum. Ruminal proteolysis determines the amount ofammonia, AA, peptides, and branched-chain VFA available for microbial growth andproliferation. Carbohydrates are the main components in the dairy ration, comprising roughly 60 – 80% of total dry matter (DM) and could supply to 70% net energy lactation (NEL) for high yielding dairy cows. External markers such as 15N or 35S as well as internal markers such as nucleic acids have been used to determine ruminal microbial protein production


Main Subjects

Argyle, J.L., and R.L. Baldwin. 1989. Effects of amino acids and peptides on rumen microbial growth yields. J. Dairy Sci. 72:2017-2025. Williams, P. 1995. Animal production and European pollution problems. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 53:135-144.
Balcells, J., J. A. Guada, C. Castrillo, and J. Gasa. 1991. Urinary excretion of Allantoin and Allantoin precursors by sheep after different rates of urine infusion into the duodenum. J. Agric. Sci. 116:309-317.
Bach, A., S. Calsamiglia, and M. D. Stern. 2005. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. J. Dairy Sci. 88:(E. Suppl.):E9-E21.
Bayati zadeh, J., and N. Moradi kor. 2013. Synchronization of energy and protein on supply synthesis microbial protein. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 6: 594-600.
Broderick, G. A., and N. R. Merchen. 1992. Markers for quantifying microbial synthesis in the rumen. J. Dairy Sci. Chen, X. B., E. R. Ørskov, F. D. Hovell. 1990. Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants: endogenous excretion, differences between cattle and sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 63:121-129.
Cotta, M. A., and J. B. Russell. 1982. Effects of peptides and amino acids on efficiency of rumen bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture. J. Dairy Sci. 65:226-234.
Chen, X. B., A. G. Calder, P. Prasitkusol, D. J. Kyle, and M. C. N. Jayasuriya. 1998. Determination of 15N isotopic enrichment and concentrations of allantoin and uric acid in urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J. Mass Spec. 33:130-137.
Chen, X. B., J. Fujihara, K. Nakamura, P. O. Mawuenyegah, M. F. Franklin, and D. J. Kyle. 1997.
Response of urinary and plasma purine derivatives to various rates and infusion patters of purines in sheep nourished by intragastric infusion. J. Agric. Sci. 129:343-352.
Fujihara, T. E. R. Orskov, P. J. Reeds, and D. J. Kyle. 1987. The effect of protein infusion on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in ruminants nourished by intragastric nutrition. J. Agric Sci. 109:7-12.
Giesecke, D., L. Ehrentreich, M. Stangassinger, and F. Ahrens. 1994. Mammary and renal excretion of urine metabolites in relation to energy intake and milk yield in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:2376-2381.
González-Ronquillo, J. Balcells, A. Belenguer, C. Castrillo, and M. Mota. 2004. A comparison of purine derivatives excretion with conventional methods as indices of microbial yield in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87:2211-2221.
Giesecke, D., L. Ehrentreich, M. Stangassinger, and F. Ahrens. 1994. Mammary and renal excretion of urine metabolites in relation to energy intake and milk yield in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:2376-2381.
Gonda, H. L., M. Emanuelson, and M. Murphy. 1996. The effect of roughage to concentrate ration in the diet on nitrogen and urine metabolism in dairy cows. An. Feed Sci. Tech. 64:27-42.
Hungate, R. E. 1966. The rumen and its microbes. Academic Press, New York.
Jung, H. G., and M. S. Allen. 1995. Characteristics of plant cell walls affecting intake and digestibility of forages by ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2774-2790.
Kohn, R. A., Z. Dou, J. D. Ferguson, and R. C. Boston. 1997. A sensitivity analysis of nitrogen losses from dairy farms. J. Environ. Mgt. 50:417-428.
Kohn, R. A., K. R. French, and E. Russek-Cohen. 2004. A comparison of instruments and laboratories used to measure milk urea nitrogen in bulk-tank milk samples. J. Dairy Sci. 87:1848-1853.
Kirchgessner, V. M., and M. Kreuzer. 1985. Urea and allantoin in the milk of cows during and after feeding protein in excess or protein deficiency. The influence of incorrect protein nutrition of lactating cows and its residual effects. Z. Tierphysiol., Tierenährg. u. Futtermittelkde. 54:141-151.
Lindberg, J. E., H. Bristav, and A. R. Manyenga. 1989. Excretion of purines in the urine of sheep in relation to duodenal flow of microbial protein. Swedish J. Agric. Res. 19:45 52.
Ludden, P. A., T. L. Wechter, and B. W. Hess. 2002a. Effects of oscillating dietary protein on nutrient digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, and gastrointestinal organ mass in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 80:3021–3026.
Martín-Orúe, S. M., J. Balcells, J. A. Guada, and M. Fondevila. 2000. Microbial nitrogen production in growing heifers: Direct measurement of duodenal flow of purine bases versus urinary excretion of purine derivatives as estimation procedures. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 88:171–188.
Maeng, W. J., C. J. van Nevel, R. L. Baldwin, and J. G. Morris. 1976. Rumen microbial growth rates and yields: effect of amino acids and protein. J. Dairy Sci. 59:68-79.
Maeng, W. J., and R. L. Baldwin. 1976. Factors influencing rumen microbial growth rates and yields: effect of amino acid additions to a purified diet with nitrogen from urea. J. Dairy Sci. 59:648-655.
Maeng, W. J., C. J. van Nevel, R. L. Baldwin, and J. G. Morris. 1976. Rumen microbial growth rates and yields: effect of amino acids and protein. J. Dairy Sci. 59:68-79.
Nolan, J. 1975. Quantitative models of nitrogen metabolism in sheep. Pages 416-431 in Digestion and metabolism in the ruminant. I. W. MacDonald and A. C. I. Warner, ed. University of New England Publishing Unit, Armidale, Australia.
Puchala, R., and G. W. Kalasek. 1992. Estimation of microbial protein flow from the rumen of sheep using microbial nucleic acid and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 72:821-830.
Pittman, K. A., and M. P. Bryant. 1964. Peptides and other nitrogen sources for growth of bacteroides ruminicola. J. Bacteriol. 88:401-410.
Rooke, J. A., and D. G. Armstrong. 1989. The importance of the form of nitrogen on microbial protein synthesis in the rumen of cattle receiving grass silage and continuous intrarumen infusions of sucrose. Br. J. Nutr. 61:113-121.
Richardson, A. J., A. G. Calder, C. S. Stewart, and A. Smith. 1989. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile acidic fermentation products of anaerobes by capillary gas chromatography. Letters in Appl. Micro. 9:5-8.
Shingfield, K. J. and N. W. Offer. 1998. Evaluation of milk allantoin excretion as an index of microbial protein supply in lactating dairy cows. Anim. Sci. 67:371-385.
Susmel, P., M. Spanghero, B. Stefanon, and C. R. Mills. 1995. Nitrogen balance and partitioning of some nitrogen catabolites in milk and urine of lactating cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 44:207-219.
Smith, R. H., and A. B. McAllan. 1970. Nucleic acid metabolism in the ruminant: formation of microbial nucleic acids in the rumen in relation to the digestion of food nitrogen, and the fate of dietary nucleic acids. Br. J. Nutr. 24:545-556.
Scholljerges, E. J., P. A. Ludden, and B. W. Hess. 2005. Effect of restricted forage intake on ruminal disappearance of bromegrass hay and a blood meal, feather meal, and fish meal supplement. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2146-2150.
Stern, M. D., G. A. Varga, J. H. Clark, J. L. Firkins, J. T. Huber, and D. L. Palmquist. 1994. Symposium: Metabolic relationships in supply of nutrients for milk protein synthesis. Evaluation of chemical and physical properties of feeds that affect protein metabolism in the rumen. J. Dairy Sci. 77:2762-2786.
Thomann, R. V., J. R. Collier, A. Butt, E. Casman, and L. C. Linker. 1994. Responses of the Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Model to loading scenarios. Environ. Prot. Agency, Washington, DC.
Timmermans, S. J., Jr., L. M. Johnson, J. H. Harrison, and D. Davidson. 2000. Estimation of the flow of microbial nitrogen to the duodenum using milk uric acid or allantoin. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1286-1299.
Verbic, J., X. B. Chen, N. A. Macleod, and E. R. Orskov. 1990. Excretion of urine derivatives by ruminants: effect of microbial nucleic acid infusion on urine derivative excretion by steers. J. Agric. Sci. 114:243-248.
Valkeners, D., A. The´wis, F. Piron, and Y. Beckers. 2004. Effect of imbalance between energy and nitrogen supplies on microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in growing doublemuscled Belgian Blue bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1818–1825.
Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. Van Soest, P. J., and R. H. Wine. 1967. Use of detergents in analysis of fibrous feeds.determination of plant cell-wall constituents. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 50:50-55.
Vagnoni, D. B., G. A. Broderick, M. K. Clayton, and R. D. Hatfield. 1997. Excretion of urine derivatives by Holstein cows abomasally infused with incremental amounts of purines. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1695-1702.
Virtanen, A. I. 1966. Milk production of cows on protein-free feed. Science. 53:1603- 1614.
Stock, R., T. Klopfenstein, D. Brink, R. Britton, and D. Harmon. 1986. Whey as a source of rumendegradable protein. I. Effects on microbial protein production. J. Anim. Sci. 63:1561-1573.
Wright, D. E. 1967. Metabolism of peptides by rumen microorganisms. Appl. Microbiol. 15:547-550.
Wallace, R. J., R. Onodera, and M. A. Cotta. 1997. Metabolism of nitrogen-containing compounds. Pages 283-328 in The Rumen Microbial Ecosystem. 2nd ed. P. N. Hobson and C. S. Stewart, ed. Chapman &
Hall, London, UK.