Document Type: Review Article

Authors

Young Researchers and Elites Club, Sirjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sirjan, Iran

Abstract

Responses to sugars in dry or liquid formvary from study to study. When fed in proper amounts, sugars should not depress ruminalpH, and there is some evidence that they actuallyhelp toprevent a drop in pH after consuming largemeals of concentrate by maintaining a highernumberoflactate-fermenting bacteria. Adding sugars doesprioritize the need for rumen degraded protein (RDP).we all know, sugars are rapidly and extensively fermented. Also, it pretty well established that there is an optimum feeding rate between 2.5 and 5% supplemental sugar. Carbohydrates are the main components in the dairy ration, comprising roughly 60 – 80% of total dry matter (DM) and could supply to 70% net energy lactation (NEL) for high yielding dairy cows. The relatively high rate of absorption of ammoniaby ruminants (Huntington, 1990) suggests thatenergy availability, or lack of synchrony betweenenergy and nitrogen supplies, limits the use ofavailable nitrogen by ruminal microorganisms

Keywords

Main Subjects

Aldrich, J. M., L. D. Muller, G. A. Varga, and L. C. Griel, Jr. 1993. Nonstructural carbohydrate and protein effects on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow, and performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1091.
Bayati Zadeh, J. A. khezri, 2012. Study the Effect of Using Levels Different Discarded Dates on Rumen Fermentation Parameters and Microbial Protein Synthesis of Kermani Sheep. The 5 th Iranian Congress on Animal Science, Esfahan, Iran.
Bayati zadeh, J., and N. Moradi kor. 2013. Synchronization of energy and protein on supply synthesis microbial protein. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 6: 594-600.
Beauchemin, K.A., D. Colombatto, D.P. Morgavi, and W.Z. Yang. 2003. Use of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes to improve feed utililization by ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 81(E. Suppl. 2):E37-E47.
Bell, M.C., W.D. Gallup, and C.K. Whitehair. 1953. Value of urea nitrogen in rations containing different carbohydrate feeds. J. Anim. Sci. 12:787-797.
Binkley, W.W., and M.L. Wolfram. 1953. Composition of cane juice and cane final molasses. Scientific Report Series No. 15. Sugar Research Foundation, Inc. New York. Originally published in Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry, Vol. III, Academic Press, Inc.
Broderick, G.A., N.D. Luchini, S.M. Reynal, G.A. Varga, and V.A. Ishler. 2008. Effect on production of replacing dietary starch with sucrose in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 91:4801-4810.
Broderick, G.A., and W.J. Radloff. 2004. Effect of molasses supplementation on the production of lactating dairy cows fed diets based on alfalfa and corn silage. J. Dairy Sci. 87:2997-3009.
Broderick, G.A., N.D. Luchini, W.J. Radloff, G.A. Varga, and V.A. Ishler. 2000. Effect of replacing dietary starch with sucrose on milk production in lactating dairy cows. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center, 2000-2001 Research Report, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Madison, Wis. pp. 116-118.
Cotta, M. A. 1992. Interaction of ruminal bacteria in the production and utilization of maltooligosaccharides from starch. Appl. Environ.Microbiol. 58:48.
Calsamiglia, S., P.W. Cardozo, A. Ferret, and A. Bach. 2008. Changes in rumen microbial fermentation are due to a combined effect of type of diet and pH. J. Anim. Sci. 86:702-711.
Calsamiglia, S., P.W. Cardozo, A. Ferret, and A. Bach. 2008. Changes in rumen microbial fermentation are due to a combined effect of type of diet and pH. J. Anim. Sci. 86:702-711.
Dunlop, R. H. 1972. Pathogenesis of ruminant lactic acidosis. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med. 16:259-302.
Firkins, J.L., S.K.R. Karnati, and Z. Yu. 2008a. Linking rumen function to animal response by application of metagenomics techniques. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 48:711-721.
Firkins, J.L., B.S. Oldick, J. Pantoja, L.E. Gilligan, and L. Carver. 2008b. Efficacy of liquid feeds varying in concentration and composition of fat, nonprotein nitrogen, and non-fiber carbohydrates for lactating
dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 91:1969-1984.
Firkins, J.L., Z. Yu, and M. Morrison. 2007. Ruminal nitrogen metabolism: Perspectives for integration of microbiology and nutrition for dairy. J. Dairy Sci. 90(E. Suppl.):E1-E16.
Jenkins, T.C., R.J. Wallace, P.J. Moate, and E.E. Mosley. 2008. Board-Invited Review: Recent advances in biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids within the rumen microbial ecosystem. J. Anim. Sci. 86:397-412.
Jones, B.A., R.D. Hatfield, and R.E. Muck. 1992. Effect of fermentation and bacterial inoculation on lucerne cell walls. J. Sci. Food Agric. 60:147-153.
Jones, D.F., W.H. Hoover, and T.K. Miller Webster. 1998. Effects of concentrations of peptides on microbial metabolism in continuous culture. J. Anim. Sci. 76:611-616.
Heldt, J.S., R.C. Cochran, G.L. Stokka, C.G. Farmer, C.P. Mathis, E.C. Titgemeyer, and T.G. Nagaraja. 1999. Effects of different supplemental sugars and starch fed in combination with degradable intake protein on low-quality forage use by beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2793-2802.
Herrera-Saldana, R., and J. T. Huber. 1989. Influence of varying protein and starch intake degradabilities on performance of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:1477.
Herrera-Saldana, R. E, J. T. Huber, and M. H. Poore. 1990b. Dry matter, crude protein and starch degradability of five cereal grains. J. Dairy Sci. 73:2386.
Huntington, G. B. 1990. Energy metabolism in the digestive tract and liver of cattle: Influence of physiological state and nutrition. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 30:35.
Harmon, D. L. and K. R. McLeod. 2001. Glucose uptake and regulation by intestinal tissues: Implications and whole-body energetics. J. Anim. Sci. 79(E. Suppl.):E59-E72.
Griswold, K.E., G.A. Apgar, J. Bouton, and J.L. Firkins. 2003. Effects of urea infusion and ruminal degradable protein concentration on microbial growth, digestibility, and fermentation in continuous culture. J. Anim. Sci. 81:329-336.
Guan, L.L., J.D. Nkrumah, J.A. Basarab, and S.S. Moore. 2008. Linkage of microbial ecology to phenotype: correlation of rumen microbial ecology to cattle’s feed efficiency. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 288:85-91.
Kotarski, S. F., R. D. Waniska and K. K. Thurn. 1992. Starch hydrolysis by the ruminal microflora. J. Nutr. 122:178.
Khalili, H., and P. Huhtanen. 1991. Sucrose supplements in cattle given grass silage-based diet. 2. Digestion of cell wall carbohydrates. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 33:263-273.
Kingerman, C.M., W. Hu, E.E. McDonell, M.C. DerBedrosian, and L. Kung, Jr. 2009. An evaluation of exogenous enzymes with amylolytic activity for dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 92:1050-1059.
Khafipour, E., S. Li, J.C. Plaizier, and D.O. Krause. 2009. Rumen microbiome composition determined using two nutritional models of subacute ruminal acidosis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:7115-7124.
McCarthy, R. D., Jr., T. H. Klusmeyer, J. L. Vicini, and J. H. Clark. 1989. Effects of source of protein and carbohydrate on ruminal fermentation and passage of nutrients to the small intestine of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:2002.
McAllister, T. A., H. D. Bae, G. A. Jones, and K.-J. Chung. 1994.Microbial attachment and feed digestion in the rumen. J. Anim. ci. 72:3004.
Mendoza, G. D., R. A. Britton, and R. A. Stock. 1993. Influence of ruminal protozoa on site and extent of starch digestion and ruminal fermentation. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1572.
McCormick, M.E., D.D. Redfearn, J.D. Ward, and D.C. Blouin. 2001. Effect of protein source and soluble carbohydrate addition on rumen fermentation and lactation performance of Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1686-1697.
Mouriño, F., R. Akkarawongsa, and P.J. Weimer. 2001. Initial pH as a determinant of cellulose digestion rate by mixed ruminal microorganisms in vitro. J. Dairy Sci. 84:848-859.
Matras, J., S. J. Bartle, and R. L. Preston. 1991. Nitrogen utilization in growing lambs: Effects of grain (starch) and protein sources with various rates of ruminal degradation. J. Anim. Sci. 69:339.
Nocek, J. E., and S. Tamminga. 1991. Site of digestion of starch in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk and composition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3598.
Nagaraja, T.G., and E.C. Titgemeyer. 2007. Ruminal acidosis in beef cattle: The current microbiological and nutritional outlook. J. Dairy Sci. 90(E. Suppl.):E17-E38.
Nagaraja, T.G., and E.C. Titgemeyer. 2007. Ruminal acidosis in beef cattle: The current microbiological and nutritional outlook. J. Dairy Sci. 90(E. Suppl.):E17-E38.
Nousiainen, J., M. Rinne, and P. Huhtanen. 2009. A meta-analysis of feed digestion in dairy cows. 1. The effects of forage and concentrate factors on total diet digestibility. J. Dairy Sci. 92:5019-5030.
Oldick, B.S., J.L. Firkins, and N.R. St-Pierre. 1999. Estimation of microbial nitrogen flow to the duodenum of cattle based on dry matter intake and diet composition. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1497-1511.
Palmonari, A., D.M. Stevenson, D.R. Mertens, C.W. Cruywagen, and P.J. Weimer. 2010. pH dynamics and bacterial community composition in the rumen of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93:279-287.
Palmquist, D.L., C.L. Davis, R.E. Brown, and D.S. Sachan. 1969. Availability and metabolism of various substrates in ruminants. V. Entry rate into the body and incorporation into milk fat of D(-)bhydroxybutyrate. J. Dairy Sci.-633.
Poore, M. H., J. A. Moore, T. P. Eck, R. S. Swingle, and C. B. Theurer. 1993. Effect of fiber source and ruminal starch degradability on site and extent of digestion in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:2244.
Penner, G.B., J.R. Aschenbach, G. Gäbel, R. Rackwitz, and M. Oba. 2009. Epithelial capacity for apical uptake of short chain fatty acids is a key determinant for intraruminal pH and the susceptibility to subacute ruminal acidosis in sheep. J. Nutr. 139:1714-1720.
Penner, G. B., and M. Oba. 2009. Increasing dietary sugar concentration may improve dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, and productivity of dairy cows in the postpartum phase of the transition period. J. Dairy Sci. 92:3341-3353.
Piwonka, E.J., and J.L. Firkins. 1996. Effect of glucose fermentation on fiber digestion by ruminal microorganisms in vitro. J. Dairy Sci. 79:2196- 2206.
Oelker, E.R., C. Reveneau, and J.L. Firkins. 2009. Interaction of molasses and monensin in alfalfa hayor corn silage-based diets on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and milk production by Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 92:270-285.
Smith, A.K., and S.J. Circle. 1978. Chemical composition of the seed. In Soybeans: Chemistry and Technology, A.K. Smith and S.J Circle, eds. AVI Publishing, Westport, Conn.
Taniguchi, K., G. B. Huntington, and B. P. Glenn. 1995. Net nutrient flux byvisceral tissues of beef steers given abomasal and ruminal infusion of casein and starch. J. Anim. Sci. 73:236.
Van Soest, P.J. 1994. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant, 2nd ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, N.Y. Wu, Z., and J.T. Huber. 1994. Relationship between dietary fat supplementation and milk protein concentration in lactating cows: A review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 39:141-155.