Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Aquatic production, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

2 Aquaculture Department, Natural Resources and Environmental Faculty, Behbahan Khatam Alanbia University of Technology, Iran

Abstract

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different proportions of marshmallow extract (Althaea officinalis L.) on growth performance and carcass composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Methods: Common carp with an average weight of 37.65 ± 4.40 g were fed for two months with a diet supplemented with marshmallow (A. officinalis) extract 0.25%, 0.50 and 1%, and with normal diet as controls. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI) were assessed on days 30 and 60. The growth performance including weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and condition factor (CF) were measured on days 15, 30, 45 and 60.  Results: Results of the present study showed that specimens fed a diet supplemented with marshmallow extract (0.25%) exhibited dramatically increased growth performance, which was the highest amongst all treatments (P<0.05). The addition of marshmallow extract did not have any effects on hepato-somatic index (HSI), intestine-somatic index (ISI) and condition factor when compared to the control diet. However, administering high levels of marshmallow extract had adverse effects on growth performance of specimens. Our results showed slight changes in body composition of fish fed a diet supplemented with marshmallow extract compared with controls. It can be concluded that marshmallow extract 0.25% can act as a growth stimulator. On the other hand, high levels of marshmallow may have anti-nutritional factors that decrease the utilization of the given feed.

Keywords

Abd El Hakim, N. F., M. H. Ahmad, E. S. Azab, M. S. Lashien, and E. S. Baghdady. (2010). Response of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus to diets
supplemented with different levels of fennel seeds meal (Foeniculum vulgare). Abbassa International Journal of Aquaculture 3:215–230.
Adams, C. (2005). Nutrition-based health. Feed internat. 2: 25-28.
Ahmadi, K., Banaee, M., Vosoghei, A.R., Mirvaghefei, A.R. and Ataeimehr, B. (2012). Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of silymarin extract (Silybum marianum) on some immune parameters of rainbow trout,
Oncorhynchus mykiss (Actinopterygii: Salmoniformes: Salmonidae). Acta Ichthyologica Et Piscatoria, 42 (2): 113–120. 

Ali, A., Al-Asgahn, N.A., Al-Ogaily, M.S. and Ali, S. (2003). Effect of feeding different levels of Alfalfa meal on the growth performance and body
composition of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings. Asian Fish. Sci. 16, 59-67.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 17th ed.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.
Asadi, M.S., Mirvaghefei, A.R., Nematollahi, M.A., Banaee, M. and Ahmadi, K. (2012). Effects of Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium) extract on
some immunological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Open Veterinary Journal; 2(1):32-39.
Banaee, M. (2010). Influence of silymarin in decline of sublethal diazinon-induced oxidative stress in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
Ph.D. Thesis, Aquaculture and Environmental Department, Natural Resource Faculty, Natural Resource and Agriculture Collage, Tehran
University, Iran, 149 pages.
Banaee, M., Sureda, A., Mirvaghefi, A.R. and Rafei, G.R. (2011). Effects of long-term silymarin oral supplementation on the blood biochemical profile
of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 37: 887-896.
Bilgin, Ö., Turker, A. and Tekinay, A.A. (2007). The use of hazelnut meal as a substitute for soybean meal in the diets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss). Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 31:145-151.
Bohlouli Oskoii, S., Tahmasebi Kohyani, A., Salati, A.P., Parseh, A. and Sadeghi, E. (2012). Effects of dietary administration of Echinacea purpurea on
growth indices and biochemical and hematological indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry,
38:1029–1034.
Cek, S., Turan, F. and Atik, E. (2007a). The effects of gokshura, Tribulus terrestris, on sex differentiation of guppy, Poecilia reticulata. Pak. J. Biol.Sci.10: 718–725.
Cek, S., Turan, F. and Atik, E. (2007b). Masculinization of convict cichlid (Chichlasoma nigrofasciatum) by immersion in Tribulus terrestris extract. Aquaculture International, 15(2): 109–119.
Cho, Y.S., Schiller, N.L., Kahng, H.Y., and Oh, K.H. (2007). Cellular responses and proteomic analysis of Escherichia coli exposed to green tea
polyphenols. Curr. Microbiol. 55, 501–506.
Glencross, B., Evans, D., Hawkins, W. and Jones, B. (2004). Evaluation of dietary inclusion of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) kernel meal on the growth,
feed utilization and tissue histology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 235,411-422.
Haqe-Soleiman, R., Mroueh, M. and Daher, C.F. (2011). Pharmacological evaluation of aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower grown in
Lebanon. 49(3):327-33.
Jalali, B. and Barzegar, M. (2005). Dactylogyrids (Dactylogyridae: Monogenea) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in freshwaters of Iran and
description of pathogenicity of D. sahuensis. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 7:9-16.
Jha, A.K., Pal, A.K., Sahu, N.P., Kumara, S. and Mukherjeea, S.C. 2007. Haematoimmunological responses to dietary yest RNA, w-3 fatty acid and ß-carotene in Catla catla juveniles. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 23: 917-927.
Ji, S., Jronh, G., IM, G., Lee, S., Yoo, J. and Takii, K. (2007). Dietary medicinal herbs improve growth performance, fatty acid utilization, and stress
recovery of Japanese flounder. Fish. Sci. 73, 70-76 Jian, J. and Wu, Z. 2004. Influence of traditional Chinese medicine on non-specific immunity of Jian
Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 16,185-191.
Khakdan, F. and Piri, K. (2013). In vitro cytotoxic activity of aqueous root extract of Althea kurdica against endothelial human bone marrow cells
(line k562) and human lymphocytes. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences; 2(6): 23-29.
Kocour, M., Lynhard, O., Gela, D. and Rodina, M. (2005). Growth performance of all female and mixed sex common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.
population in central European climatic conditions. J.World Aquacult. Soc. 36: 103–113.
Metwally, M.A.A. (2009). Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on some antioxidant activities in Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus). World J. of Fish Mar. Sci. 1: 56-64.
Ndong, D. and Fall, J. (2007). The effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on growth and immune responses of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus
x Oreochromis aureus), Document Scientifique du CRODT, p 1–22.
Nya, E. and Austin, B. (2009). Use of dietary ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, as an immunostimulant to control Aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) J. Fish Dis. 32, 971-977.
Olmedo sanchez, J.A, Curiel Flores, A, Orozco, J.R. (2009). The effect of a herbal growth promoter feed additive on shrimp performance. Res. J.
Biol.Sci. 4: 1022-1024.
Olvera-Novoa, M.A., Campos, S.G., Sabido, M.G. and Martinez-Palacios, C.A. (1990). The use of alfalfa leaf protein concentrates as a protein source in
diets for tilapia (Oreochromis mosssambicus). Aquaculture 90, 291-302.
Pham, M.A., Lee, K.J., Lee, B.J., Lim, S.J., Kim, S.S., Lee, Y.D., Heo, M.S. and Lee, K.W. (2006). Effects of dietary Hizikia fusiformis on growth and immune responses in juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 19: 1769-1775
Pierce, L., Palti, Y., Silverstein, J., Barrows, F., Hallerman, E. and Parsons, J. (2008). Family growth response to fishmeal and plant-based diets shows genotype×diet interaction in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 278, 37–42.
Platel, K., Rao, A., Saraswahi, G. and Srinivasan, K. (2002). Digestive stimulant action of three Indian spices mixes in experimental rats.Nahrung, 46(6):394-398.
Rao, Y.V., Das, B.K., Jyotyrmayee, P. and Chakrabarti, R. (2006). Effect of Achyranthes aspera on the immunity and survival of Labeo
rohita infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 20, 263 – 273.
Sadighara, P., Gharibi, S., Moghadam Jafari, A., Jahed Khaniki, G.R. and Salari, S. (2012). The antioxdant and flavonoids contents of Althaea officinalis L. flowers based on their color. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine; 2(3): 113-117.
Sahu, S., Das, B.K., Mishra, B.K., Pradhan, J. and Sarangi, N. (2007). Effect of Magnifera indica kernel as a feed additive on immunity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 23, 109-118
Salah, M.A, Nashwa, M.A.T. and Mohamed, F.T. (2008). Proceedings of 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, Ciro, Egypt,
12-14, October, 2008; 277-296.
Sivaram, V., Babu, M.M., Citarasu, T., Immanuel, G., Murugadass, S. and Marian, M.P. (2004). Growth and Immune response of juvenile greasy groupers (Epinephelus tauvina) fed with herbal antibacterial
active principle supplemented diets against Vibrio  harveyi infections. Aquaculture 237(1-4): 9–20.
Toko, I.I., Fiogbe, E.D. and Kestemont, P. (2008). Growth, feed efficiency and body mineral composition of juvenile vundu catfish
(Heterobranchus longifilis, Valenciennes 1840) in relation to various dietary levels of soybean or cottonseed meals. Aquaculture Nutrition, 14(3):193–203.
Turan, F. (2006). Improvement of growth performance in Tilapia (Oreochromis aureus, Linnaeus) by supplementation of red clover (Trifolium pratense) in diets. Bamidgeh, Isr. J. Aquac. 58(1): 34-38.
Yilmaz, E., Genc, M.A., Cek, S., Mazlum, Y. and Genc, E. (2006). Effects of orally administered Ferula coskunii (Apiaceae) on growth, body composition
and histology of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 5(12):1236–1238.
Zakes, Z., Kowalska, A., Demska-Zakes, K., Jeney, G. and Jeney, Z. (2008). Effect of two medicinal herbs (Astragalus radix and Lonicera japonica) on the
growth performance and body composition of juvenile pike perch (Sander lucioperca). Aquaculture Research. 39:1149-1160