Document Type : Original Article


1 Departmant of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

2 Departmant of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 National Plant Gene-Bank, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran

4 Plant Pest and Disease Research Institute, Plant Pathology Dept, Tehran, Iran

5 Agriculture University, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran


Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate genetic variability and phonetic relationships of 50 isolates of P. sojae from Iran. Methods: During 2005–2007, 142 isolates of Phytophthora sojae were collected from soil samples and diseased soybean plants from Lorestan, Mazandaran, Golestan and Ardabil provinces. Races of the isolates were determined. DNA of P. sojae fifty isolates was amplified with 20 RAPD and 5 ISSR primers. Results: Five primers amplified 77 fragments, of which 20 were polymorphic, indicating low variability. RAPD and ISSR primers clustered isolates into three distinct groups at 85% similarity. Genetic diversity among isolates detected intra specific variability even among isolates of the same geographic origin. There is no correlation between races, geographical distribution, and molecular markers.


Amirshahi MC. (1975). Soybean production an cultivation in iran. Average yield per hectare, production costs, and farm-gate prices of selected crops (2010). Iran statistical year book, pp.
Bhat RG, Schmitthenner AF (1993). Genetic crosses between physiologic races of Phytophthora sojae. Experimental Mycology 17 (2):122-129.
Cooke DEL, Jung T, Williams NA, Schubert R, Bahnweg G, Oflwald W, Duncan JM (1999). Molecular evidence supports Phytophthora quercina as a distinct species. Mycological Research 103 (7):799-804. doi:10.1017/s0953756299008606
Dorrance A, Gr¸nwald NJ (2008). Phytophthora sojae: Diversity among and within populations. Oomycete Genetics and Genomics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 197-212. doi:10.1002/9780470475898.ch10
Drenth A, Whisson S, Maclean D, Irwin J, Obst N, Ryley M (1996). The evolution of races of Phytophthora sojae in Australia. Phytopathology 86 (2):163-169.
Forster h, Tyler BM, Coffey MD (1994). Phytophthora sojae races have arisen by clonal evolution and by rare outcrosses. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interaction 712.
Gally M, Ramos AM, Dokmetzian D, Lopez SE (2007). Genetic variability of Phytophthora sojae isolates from Argentina. Mycologia 99 (6):877-883.
Goodwin SB (1997). The population genetics of Phytophthora. Phytopathology 8712.
Kasuga T, Salimath SS, Shi J, Gijzen M, Buzzell RI, Bhattacharyya MK (1997). High resolution genetic and physical mapping of molecular markers linked to the Phytophthora resistance gene Rps1-k in soybean.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 10 (9):1035-1044.
MacGregor T, Bhattacharyya M, Tyler B, Bhat R, Schmitthenner AF, Gijzen M (2002). Genetic and physical mapping of Avr1a in Phytophthora sojae. Genetics 160 (3):949-959.
McDonald KL, Cahill DM (1999). Evidence for a transmissible factor that causes rapid stomatal closure in soybean at sites adjacent to and remote from
hypersensitive cell death induced by Phytophthora sojae. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 55 (3):197- 203. doi:10.1006/pmpp.1999.0220
2760 Mohammadi et al/ Int. J. Adv. Biol. Biom. Res, 2014; 2 (11), 2756-2760
Meng XQ, Shoemaker RC, Yang XB (1999). Analysis of pathogenicity and genetic variation among Phytophthora sojae isolates using RAPD. Mycological Research 103 (2):173-178. doi:10.1017/s0953756298006893
Nyass… S, Grivet L, Risterucci AM, Blaha G, Berry D, Lanaud C, Despr…Aux D (1999). Diversity of Phytophthora megakarya in central and West Africa
revealed by isozyme and RAPD markers. Mycological Research 103 (10):1225-1234. doi:10.1017/s0953756299008369