Document Type : Original Article


Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Wondo Genet Agriculture Research Center P.O.Box 198, Shashemene, Ethiopia



Vernonia galamensis Cass is a huge potential industrial crop with very high content of vernolic acid in the seed oil. The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of inter- and intra- row spacing on the yield and yield related traits of Vernonia galamensis Cas.The experiment was conducted for two years during 2014-2015 on experimental field of Wondo Genet Agricultural research center, Southern Ethiopia. The factorial combinations of five intra-rows (30, 40, 50, 60 and 70cm) and three inter-row plant spacing (60, 80, 100cm) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on yield and yield related traits including plant height (cm), number of branch/plant, number of pods /plant, Seed yield kg/ha, oil yield kg/ha, Oleoresin % and 1000 seed weight (gm) were recorded .The combined analysis of the two years trial showed that the interaction effect of Inter and Intra row spacing treatments significantly influenced all parameters measured except thousand seed weight and oil content. Inter and Intra row spacing interaction effect was highly significant (P<0.0001) on number of branches per plant, seed yield and oil yield. The maximum seed yield of 2491.3 kg/ha, Oil yield 932.2kg/ha were obtained from a spacing combination of 60cm intra-row and 60cm inter-rows. Therefore, the inter and intra row spacing combination of 60 x 60cm is a recommendable optimum spacing for Vernonia galamensis (Cass.) production to attain maximum yield under the conditions of Wondo genet and similar locations.


Baye, T., 2000. Variation in agronomic characteristics of Vernonia galamensis, a new industrial oilseed crop of Ethiopia. In: The Development of Euphorbia lagascae within European Community. Proceedings EC-Concerted
Action Workshop II, 25–27 March, Cambridge, UK, 49–53.
Baye, T., Becker, H., 2005. Genetic variability and interrelationship of traits in the industrial oil crop Vernonia galamensis. Euphytica, 142, 119–129.
Baye, T., Kebede, H., Belete, K., 2001. Agronomic evaluation of Vernonia galamen‐sis germplasm collected from eastern Ethiopia. Ind. Crops Prod. 14, 179–190.
Board, J.E., Harville, B.G., Saxton, A.M., 1990. Narrow-row seed-yield enhancement in determinate soybean. Agron. J., 82, 64-68.
David, D.A., 1997. New crop facts sheet, Vernonia, Purdue University.
Demissie, A., 1991. Potentially valuable crop plants in a Vaviloviancenter of diversity: Ethiopia. In: Attere F., Zedan H., Ng N.O. and Perrino P. (eds), Crop Genetic Resources of Africa, Proceedings of an International Conference on Crop Genetic Resources of Africa, 26–30 September 1988, Nairobi, Kenya, vol. 1. IBPGRI/
UNEP/IITA/CNR. The Trinity Press, UK, 89–98.
Gilbert, M.G., 1986. Notes on eastern Africa Vernonieae (Compositae). IV. A revision of the Vernonia galamensis complex. Kew Bull. 41, 19–35.
Henderson, T.L., Johnson, B.L., Schneiter, A.A., 2000. New crops row spacing, plant population, and cultivar effects on grain amaranth in the Northern Great Plains. Agron. J., 92, 329-336.
Higgins, J.J., 1968. Vernonia anthelmintica: A potential seed oil sources of epoxy acid, I. Phenology of seed yield. Agron. J., 60, 55-58.
Higgins, J.J., White, G.A., 1968. Vernonia anthelmintica: A potential seed oil source of epoxy acid. II. Effects of cultural practices, seed maturity, and after ripening conditions on germination. Agron. J., 60, 59-62.
Massey, J.H., 1968. Response of Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd. to spacing arrangement. Agron. J., 60, 413-414.
Massey, J.H., 1971. Harvesting Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd. to reduce seed shattering losses. Agron. J., 63, 812. Sarma, N.N., 1994. Response of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) varieties to levels of nitrogen and spacing.
Ann. Agr. Res., 15, 107-109.
Melaku Worede, 1988. Diversity and the genetic resource base. Eth. J. Agr. Sci., 10(1- 2), 39-52.
Perdue, R.E., Jr., 1986. Vernonia galamensis: A promising new crop for semi-arid areas of the tropics and sub tropics. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 63, 405.
Perdue, R.E., Jr., Carlson, K.D., Gilbert, M.G., 1986. Vernonia galamensis, potential new crop source of epoxy acid, Economic Botany, 40, 54-68.
Robinson, H., 1999. Revisions in paleotropical Vernonieae (Asteraceae). Proc. Bio. Soc. Wash., 112, 220–246.
Sangoil, L., 2000. Understanding plant density effects on maize growth and development: An important use to maximize grain yield. Sci. Rural., 39(1), 59-68.
Shibles, R.M., Weber, C.R., 1966. Interception of solar radiation and dry matter production by various soybean planting patterns, Crop. Sci., 6, 55-59.
Shimelis, H., Gwata, E.T., 2013. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of Vernonia (Vernonia galamensis) Germplasm.
Singh, B.B., Chamblis, O.L., Sharma, B., 1997. Advance in Cowpea Research. Co-publication of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Ibadan
Tesfaye Baye, 1996. Characterization and Evaluation of Vernonia galmensis var.ethiopica Germplasm collected from Eastern Ethiopia. M. Sc. Thesis presented to School of Graduate Studies, Alemaya University, Ethiopia.
Tesfaye Baye, 2003. Exploration, genetic diversity and seed quality analysis in Ethiopian population of Vernonia galamensis, Doctoral dissertation submitted for the degree of doctor of agricultural sciences to Georg-August
University of Goettingen, Germany.
Tesfaye Baye, Sileshi Gudeta, 2002. Pest survey of Vernonia galamensis in Ethiopia pp 219-221. In: Janick, J., Whipkey (ed.), A., Reprinted from “Trends in new crops and new uses, ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.”
Teynor, T. M., Putnam, D.H., Oplinger, E.S., Oelke, E.A., Kelling, K.A., Doll, J.D., 1992. Alternative field crops manual. Center for alternative plant and animal products, University of Minnesota: Center for alternative plant and
animal products and the Minnesota extension service.
Thompson, A.E., Dierig, D.A., Jonson, E.R., Dalquist, G.H., Kleiman, R., 1994. Germplasm development of Vernonia galamensis as a new industrial oilseed crop. Ind. crops and pro. 3. 185-200. (Croot, 1990).
Turk, K.J., Hall, A.E., Asbell, C.W., 1980. Drought adaptation of cowpea. I. Influence of drought on seed yield, Agron. J., 72, 413-420.
Zewdinesh, D., Bizuayehu, T., Daniel, 2011. Leaf, essential oil and Artemisinin yield of Artemisia (Artemisia annua
L.) as influenced by harvesting age and plant population density. World. J. Agr. Sci., 7(4), 404-412. How to cite this article: Sigaye, M.H., Gebere, A