Document Type : Review Article


Horticulture Department, Faculty of Plant Production, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran


Introduction: Iran is a privileged country with a high rank in plant biodiversity, including 11 of the 13 globally known climates. According to botanists and researchers, there are about 8000 medicinal plants species, which is at least twice the European continent's species diversity.
Methods: Studies have shown that over 2300 plant species in the country have medicinal and aromatic properties and could be as spices andcosmetics. The high diversity of medicinal plants in Iran has made traders aim to export these products. The tariff code (HS Code) for medicinal plants in world customs is 121190. Iran was evaluated as the number one leading country in terms of medicinal plants export in 1998 and the fifth in 2003, and it came to 32 in rankings due to some problems. In 2018, the share of Iran from medicinal plants trade was 440 million dollars, while the total global transaction of medicinal plant import was about 124 billion dollars. This outstanding amount of trade creates unique opportunities for the traders of these products.
Conclusion: The highest export of Iran currently belongs to saffron; damask rose, licorice cumin, and cilantro, with 80-90% of the exports was in bulk and only 10% as essential oils and extracts. The first destinations for medicinal plants export are Pakistan and UAE, followed by Germany, Japan, and China.

Graphical Abstract

Iranian Medicinal Plants: From Economically to Ethnomedicine Studies


Main Subjects

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