Document Type : Original Article
1 Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2 Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Background: Antibiotics are widely used in poultry industry for prevention and therapy purposes. Due to non-compliance withdrawal times and improper use of antibiotics, it is a major public health and food security issue. The administration of antibiotics is one of the primary causes of antimicrobial resistance. It also may cause health problems such as genotoxic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic, or endocrine effects, allergic reactions, and changing natural micro flora of consumers.
Methods: This study focuses on detection of antibiotic residues in the chicken tissue samples. 250 chicken liver, heart, muscle, gizzard, and skin samples were collected from Tabriz slaughterhouse. Four plate test as a microbiological method was used for detecting and analyzing antibiotic residues. This method is based on inhibition zone formation around the tissue samples in four culture media with different test bacteria and pH. To investigate the existence of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues, another extra plate containing Escherichia coli was added to the test. The sample analysis was done by using 1.5 g of each tissue.
Results: Among 250 samples including liver, muscle, gizzard, heart, and skin, 92% of liver samples, 12% of heart samples, 90% of skin samples, and 42% of muscle samples were contaminated by antibiotic residues. All the gizzard samples were free of antibiotics, while the most contaminated tissues were skin samples.
Conclusion: Four plate test is an easy and appropriate method for applying in laboratories. The results focus on considering strict legislation for using veterinary drugs in poultry in Iran.
- Santos L, Ramos F. (2016). Analytical strategies for the detection and quantification of antibiotic residues in aquaculture fishes: A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol, 52: 16-30. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Moema D, Nindi M, Dube S. (2012). Development of a dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction method for the determination of fluoroquinolones in chicken liver by high performance liquid chromatography. Anal. Chim. Acta., 730: 80-86. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Petrović J, Baltić M Ž, Ćupić V, Stefanović S, Stojanović D. (2006). Residues of enrofloxacin and its main metabolite ciprofloxacin in broiler chickens. Acta Vet., 56(5-6): 497-506. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Trouchon T, Lefebvre S. (2016). A review of enrofloxacin for veterinary use. J. Vet. Med., 6(2): 40-58. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Lolo M, Pedreira S, Miranda J M, Vázquez B I, Franco C M, Cepeda A, Fente C. (2006). Effect of cooking on enrofloxacin residues in chicken tissue. Food Addit. Contam., 23(10): 988-993. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Toldrá F, Reig M. (2006). Methods for rapid detection of chemical and veterinary drug residues in animal foods. Trends Food Sci. Technol, 17(9): 482-489. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Chen T, Yuan J, Feng X, Wei H, Hua W. (2011). Effects of enrofloxacin on the human intestinal microbiota in vitro. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 37(6): 567-571. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Bacanlı M, Başaran N. (2019). Importance of antibiotic residues in animal food. Food Chem. Toxicol., 125: 462-466. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Pikkemaat M G. (2009). Microbial screening methods for detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. Res., 395(4): 893-905. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Salehzadeh F, Salehzadeh A, Rokni N, Madani R, Golchinefar F. (2007). Enrofloxacin residue in chicken tissues from Tehran slaughterhouses in Iran. Pak J Nutr, 6(4): 409-413. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Hakimzadegan M, Khalilzadeh Khosroshahi M, Hasseini Nasab S. (2014). Monitoring Of Antibiotic Residue In Chicken Eggs In Tabriz City By Fpt. Int. J. Adv. Biol. Biomed. Res., 2(1): 132-140. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Ibrahim A, Junaidu A, Garba M. (2010). Multiple antibiotic residues in meat from slaughtered cattle in Nigeria. Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 8(1). [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Ferrini A M, Mannoni V, Aureli P. (2006). Combined Plate Microbial Assay (CPMA): A 6-plate-method for simultaneous first and second level screening of antibacterial residues in meat. Food Addit. Contam., 23(1): 16-24. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Pikkemaat M G, Rapallini M L, Zuidema T, Elferink J A, Oostra-van Dijk S, Driessen-van Lankveld W D. (2011). Screening methods for the detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals: comparison of the European Union Four-Plate Test, the Nouws Antibiotic Test and the Premi® Test (applied to muscle and kidney). Food Addit. Contam., 28(1): 26-34. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Kilinc B, Cakli S. (2008). Screening for antibiotic residues in the trout by the Four Plate test, Premi test and ELISA test. Eur. Food Res. Technol., 226(4): 795-799. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Pikkemaat M G, Oostra-van Dijk S, Schouten J, Rapallini M, Van Egmond H J. (2008). A new microbial screening method for the detection of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals: The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening). Food control, 19(8): 781-789. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Okerman L, Hoof J V, Debeuckelaere W. (1998). Evaluation of the European four-plate test as a tool for screening antibiotic residues in meat samples from retail outlets. J. AOAC Int., 81(1): 51-56. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Okerman L, Croubels S, De Baere S, Hoof J V, De Backer P, De Brabander H. (2001). Inhibition tests for detection and presumptive identification of tetracyclines, beta-lactam antibiotics and quinolones in poultry meat. Food Addit Contam, 18(5): 385-393. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Gaudin V, Maris P, Fuselier R, Ribouchon J L, Cadieu N, Rault A. (2004). Validation of a microbiological method: the STAR protocol, a five-plate test, for the screening of antibiotic residues in milk. Food Addit Contam, 21(5): 422-433. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
- Smith S, Gieseker C, Reimschuessel R, Decker C S, Carson M C. (2009). Simultaneous screening and confirmation of multiple classes of drug residues in fish by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1216(46): 8224-8232. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]