Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Fishery and Environment, Natural Resource Faculty, University of Tehran, Karaj 31578-77871, Iran

2 Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO), Inland Waters Fisheries Research of Gorgan, Iran


Artificial fertilizers and mainly organophosphate herbicide are used by farmers to enhance their crop and control pests. In order to investigate the effects of Pretilachlore, fingerlings of caspian roach were exposed to a range of concentrations of toxin close to those of estuary for 96 h. Due to movement of these fingerlings in a gradient of salinity from freshwater to brackishwater some physiological parameters were also measured and compared in these environments. Cortisol levels were significantly increased in all groups exposed to Pretilachlore, and after transferring to brackishwater the amount of cortisol was increased in control group as well. K+ and Cl2- were increased in experimental groups, Na+ changes were irregular but more changes were observed in the high concentrations of toxin. The results indicate that, fingerlings exposed to organophosphate herbicides in freshwater, may encounter some problems in physiological adaptation for entering the sea which in turn would have a negative impact on returning adults and brooders.


Banaee, M., Sureda, A., Mirvaghefi, A., Ahmadi, K. (2011).Effects of diazinon on biochemical parameters of blood in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss). Pesticide BiochemPhysiol, 99: 1-6.
Coad BW (1980) Environmental change and its impact on the freshwater fishes of Iran.Biol Conservation,19: 51-80.
Das, B.K., Mukherjee, S.C. (2003). Toxicity of cypermethrin in Labeorohita fingerlings: biochemical, enzymatic and haematological consequences. CompBiochemPhysiol, 134: 109-121.
Fairchild, W.L., Swansburg, E.O., Arsenault, J.T., Brown, S.B. (1999). Does an association between pesticide use and subsequent declines in catch of Atlantic salmon (Salmosalar) represent a case of endocrine disruption? Environ Health Perspect, 107: 349.
Flik, G., Klaren, P.H.M., Van den Burg, E.H., Metz, J.R., Huising, M.O. (2006). CRF and stress in fish. Gen ComparatEndocrinol 146: 36-44.
Gagnon, A., Jumarie, C., Hontela,.A (2006). Effects of Cu on plasma cortisol and cortisol secretion by adrenocortical cells of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss). AquatToxicol, 78: 59-65.
John, P.J. (2007).Alteration of certain blood parameters of freshwater teleost Mystusvittatus after chronic exposure to Metasystox and Sevin.Fish PhysiolBiochem, 33: 15-20.
Johnston, B., Seubert, J., Kennedy, C. (1998). Biochemical effects of didecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) exposure and osmoregulatory stress on juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchuskisutch. Arch Environ ContamToxicol, 34: 275-279.
Keyvanshokooh, S., Kalbassi, M.R. (2006). Genetic variation of Rutilusrutiluscaspicus (Jakowlew 1870) populations in Iran based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers: a preliminary study. Aquacult Res, 37: 1437-1440.
Khosravi Katuli,Kh.,Hedayaty, A., Khalili, M., Ghorayshi.Sh. (2013). Acute toxicity assessment and behavioral changes due to Pretilachlor  herbicide in Caspian roach (Rutilusrutilus). J Comp ClinlPathol Res, 12.144.
Kiabi, B.H., Abdoli, A., Naderi, M. (1999).Status of the fish fauna in the south Caspian Basin of Iran.Zool Middle East,18: 57-65.
McCormick, S.D., Hansen, L.P., Quinn, T.P., Saunders, R.L. (1998).Movement, migration, and smolting of Atlantic salmon (Salmosalar).Can J Fish AquatSci, 55: 77-92.
McDonald, D.G., Reader, J.P., Dalziel, T.R.K. (1989).The combined effects of pH and trace metals on fish ionoregulation. In: Morris, R., Taylor, E.W., Brown, D.J.A., Brown, J.A. (Eds.), Acid Toxicity and Aquatic Animals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 221–241.
Nakano, K., Tagawa, M., Takemura, A., Hirano, T. (1998). Temporal changes in liver carbohydrate metabolism associated with seawater transfer in (Oreochromismossambicus).  Com BiochemPhysiol, Part B 119:721-725.
Peterson, B.C., Booth, N.J. (2010).Validation of a whole-body cortisol extraction procedure for channel catfish (Ictaluruspunctatus) fry.Fish PhysiolBiochem, 36: 661-665.
Pottinger, T. (1998). Changes in blood cortisol, glucose and lactate in Carp retained in anglers’ keepnets. J Fish Biol,53: 728-742.
Prodocimo, V., Galvez, F., Freire, C.A., Wood, C.M. (2007). Unidirectional Na+ and Ca2+ fluxes in two euryhaline teleost fishes, Fundulusheteroclitus and Oncorhynchusmykiss, acutely submitted to a progressive salinity increase. J Comp Physiol, 177: 519-528.
Ramsay, J.M., Feist, G.W., Varga, Z.M., Westerfield, M., Kent, M.L., Schreck, C.B. (2006). Whole-body cortisol is an indicator of crowding stress in adult zebrafish, Daniorerio. Aquacult, 258: 565-574.
Saravanan, M., Prabhu Kumar, K., Ramesh, M. (2011).Haematological and biochemical responses of freshwater teleost fish Cyprinuscarpio (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) during acute and chronic sublethal exposure to lindane. Pesticide BiochemPhysiol, 100: 206-211.
Sepici-Dinçel, A., ÇağlanKarasuBenli, A., Selvi, M., Sarıkaya, R., Şahin, D., AyhanÖzkul, I., Erkoç, F. (2009). Sublethal cyfluthrin toxicity to carp (CyprinuscarpioL.) fingerlings: Biochemical, hematological, histopathological alterations. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 72: 1433-1439.
Shayeghi, M., Hosseini, M., Abtahi, M. (2006).The determination of dimethoate insecticide residues upon the cucumber product (Fars Province).J Environ SciTechnol, 27: 30-35.
Soleimani, N., Hoseinifar, S.H., Merrifield, D.L., Barati, M., Abadi, Z.H. (2012). Dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) improves the innate immune response, stress resistance, digestive enzyme activities and growth performance of Caspian roach (Rutilusrutilus) fry. Fish & Shellfish Immunol, 32:316-321
Suvetha, L., Ramesh, M., Saravanan, M. (2010). Influence of cypermethrin toxicity on ionic regulation and gill Na+ K+-ATPase activity of a freshwater teleost fish Cyprinuscarpio. Environ ToxicolPharmacol, 29: 44-49.
Waring, C.P., Brown. J.A., Collins, J.E., Prunet, P. (1996). Plasma prolactin, cortisol, and thyroid responses of the brown trout (Salmotrutta) exposed to lethal and sublethal aluminium in acidic soft water. Gen Comp Endocrinol, 102: 377–385.
Waring, C.P., Moore, A. (2004).The effect of atrazine on Atlantic salmon (Salmosalar) smolts in fresh water and after sea water transfer.AquatToxicol, 66: 93-104.
Watson, T., Beamish, F. (1980). Effects of zinc on branchial ATPase activity in vivo in rainbow trout, Salmogairdneri. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Comp Pharmacol, 66: 77-82.
WendelaarBonga, S., Lock, R. (1991).Toxicants and osmoregulation in fish.Neth J Zool, 42: 2-3.