Document Type : Original Article


Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University (I A U), Roudehen, Iran



studies had shown that oxygenated compounds were important in food products. It seems that Citrus species had a profound influence on this factor. The goal of the present study was to investigate on flavor components of two Citrus species. In the early week of June 2012, about 500 g of leaves were collected from many parts of the same trees. Leaf components were extracted using water distillation method and then analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests. The amount of oxygenated compounds ranged from 29.14% to 85.64%. Between two species examined, sour orange showed the highest content of oxygenated compounds. As a result of our study, can be concluded that the species used can influence the quantity of oxygenated compounds present in the oil


Alissandrakis, E., Daferera, D., Tarantilis, P.A., Polissiou, M and Harizanis, P.C. (2003). Ultrasound assisted extraction of volatile compounds from Citrus flowers and Citrus hon ey. Food Chem, 82:575-582.
Alistair, L.W., Yinrong, L.U and Seng-To, T. (1993). Extractives from New Zealand honey 4.linalool derivatives and other components from nodding thistle (Corduus nutans) honey. J Agric Food Chem, 41 (6):873-878.
Andrews, E.S., Theis, N and Alder, L.S. (2007). Pollinator and herbivore attraction to cucurbita floral volatiles. J Chem Ecol, 33:1682-1691.
Baaliouamer, A., Meklati, B.Y., Fraisse, D and Scharff, C. (1988). Analysis of leaf oils from four varieties of sweet orange by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Flavour Fragr J, 3:47-52.
Babazadeh-Darjazi, B. (2011a). The effects of rootstock on the volatile mandarin flavor components of page mandarin flower and leaf. Afr J Agric Res, 6(7): 1884-1896.
Babazadeh-Darjazi, B., Rustaiyan, A and Taghizad, R. (2011b) . A study on oxygenated constituents percentage existed in page mandarine peel oil during a special season. J Med Plant, 4 (2):87-93.
Babazadeh- Darjazi, B. (2011c). Comparison of volatile components of flower, leaf, peel and juice of ‘Page’ mandarin. Afr J Biotechnol, 10 (51):10437-10446.
Babazadeh- Darjazi, B. (2011d). A comparison of volatile components of flower of page mandarin obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction and hydrodistillation. J Med Plant Res, 5(13): 2840-2847.
Babazadeh- Darjazi, B. (2013). The effect of two Citrus (Citrus sp.) scions on peel components and juice quality parameters. Intl J Agri Crop Sci, 6 (15):1079-1087.
Baldwin, E.A. (2002). Fruit flavor, volatile metabolism and consumer perc eptions.
Edited by Knee, M. Florida: CRC Press LLC Publication.89-106.
Buettner, A., Mestres, M., Fischer, A., Guasch, J and Schieberie, P. (2003). Evaluation of the most odor-active compounds in the peel oil of clementines (Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. Clementine). Eur Food Res Technol, 216: 11-
Ebrahimzadeh, M.A., Hosseinimehr, S.J and Gayekhloo, M.R. (2004). Measuring and comparison of vitamin C content in Citrus fruits: introduction of a native variety. Chem Indian J, 1: 650 -652.
FAO (2012). Statistical Database. Available from:
Fotouhi, R and Fattahi, J. (2007). Citrus growing in Iran, 2nd edn. Gilan University, Rasht.
Hay, R.K.M and Waterman, P. (1995) .Volatile oils crops; their biology, biochemistry, and production, 3nd edn. Wiley, New Jersey. USA.
Kamal, G.M., Anwar, F., Hussain, A.I., Sarri, N and Ashraf, M.Y. (2011). Yield and chemical composition of Citru essential oils as affected by drying pretreatment of peels. Inter Food Res J, 18(4):1275-1282.
Kesterson, J.W., Braddock, R.J and Koo, R.C.J. (1974). The effect of bud wood, rootstock, irrigation and fertilization on the yield of Florida lemon oil. Proc Fla State Hort Soc, 87: 6-9.
Kite, G., Reynolds, T and Prance, T. (1991). Potential pollinator –attracting chemicals from Victoria (Nymphaeaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol, 19(7): 535-539.
Kostadinovic, S., Stefova, M and Nikolova, D. (2005). Comparative investigation of the sweet and bitter orange essential oil (Citrus sinensis and Citrus aurantium). Maced pharm bull, 51 (1,2): 41-46.
McLafferty, F.W and Stauffer, D.B. (1991). The important peak index of the registry of mass spectral data. Wiley, New York. USA.
Minh-Tu, N.T., Thanh, L.X., Une, A., Ukeda, H. and Sawamura, M. (2002). Volatile constituents of Vietnamese pummelo, orange, tangerine and lime peel oils. Flavour Fragr J, 17:169 -174.
Lota, M. L., Serra, D.R., Jacquemond, C and Tomi, F. (2001).Chemical variability of peel and leaf essential oils of sour orange. Flavour Fragr J, 16: 89–96.
Salem, A. (2003). Extraction and identification of essential oil components of the peel, leafand flower of tangerine”Citrus nobilis loureior var deliciosa swingle” cultivated at the north of Iran. Master of Science thesis, Islamic Azad University, Pharmaceutical sciences branch.
Sawamura, M., Minh, Tu, NT., Onishi, Y., Ogawa, E and Choi, H.S . (2004). Characteristic odor components of Citrus reticulata Blanco (ponkan) cold pressed oil. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 68(8):1690-1697.
Scora, R.W., Esen, A and Kumamoto, J. (1976). Distribution of essential oils in leaf tissue of an F2 population of Citrus. Euphytica, 25: 201-209.
Shahidi, F and Zhong, Y. (2012). Citrus oils and essences. Available from:
Zaare-Nahandi, F., Hosseinkhani, S., Zamani, Z., Asadi-Abkenar, A and Omidbaigi, R. (2008). Delay expression of limonoid UDP-glucosyltransferase makes delayed bitterness in citrus. Biochem Biophysic Res Com, 371: 59 –62.