Document Type : Original Article


Insect Population Toxicology Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt



One of our objectives in this investigation is to determine responses of S. littoralis through different developmental stages and generations to secondary metabolic compound presumably gossypol. Gossypol did not significantly show antifeedant except with high concentration (1.7% gossypol in the diet) that gave 10.6, 21.9, and 46.8% for three generations, respectively. Significantly longer larval life-spans were observed in S. littoralis on a high concentration of gossypol compared with those fed on low concentrations. The larval and pupal weight of the third generation was significantly lower than that of the previous two generations as latent effects on survived larvae significantly lower fecundity was found in the second and third generations. A significantly lower relative growth rate was observed in the three successive generations. Generally, the efficiency of gossypol was significantly higher in the second and third generations. Gossypol significantly affected growth and development, suggesting that diet-gossypol efficiency was different based on concentration and generation. This study will shed some light on the possibility of controlling S. littoralis by gossypol through the sequence of alternative spraying programs.


Abivardi, C, Benz, G. (1984). Tests with extracts of 21 medicinal plants for antifeedant activity against larvae of Pieris Brassicae L. (Lep Pieridae). Mitteil. Sweizer. Entomol. Gesell., 57:383-392
A.O.A.C. (1984). Official methods of Analysis of the Association of official Analytical chemists 14 edition edited by S. Williams. A.O.A.C. [NC. Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Boatner,CH. (1948). Pigments of cottonseed in cottonseed and cottonseed products Their chemistry and chemical Technology (A.E. Bailey, ed), In: Wiley (inter science) New York. 
Cai, QN, Zhang, QW, Cheo, M. (2004). Contribution of indole alkaloids to Sitobion avenae (F.) resistance in wheat. J. Appl. Entomol., 128:517-521.
Guo, YJ, Wu, G, Wan, HF. (2013). Effects of high-gossypol cotton on the development and reproduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1 cryptic species. J. Econ. Entomol., 106:1379-1385.
Duncan, DB. (1955). Multiple rang and multiple F test. Biometerics, 11:1-42.
Du, L, Ge, F, Zhu, S, Parajulee, M. (2004). Effect of cotton cultivar on development and reproduction of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its predator Propylaea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 97:1278-1283.
Haijing, G, Wenjing, L, Yuansen, C, Hui, C, Yang, Z, Wenping, X, Limong, T. (2017). 5,- Epi- SPA-6952A, a new insecticidal 24-membered macrolide produced by treptomyces diastatochronogenes SSPRC-11339. Natural Product. Res., 16:1-6.
Kay, RI, Noble, MR, Twine, HP. (1979). The effect of gossypol in artificial diet on the growth and development of Heliothis punctigera, Wallengren and H. armigera, Wner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Aust. ent. Soc., 18:229-212.
Lukefahr, MJ, Houghtaling, EJ. (1969). Resistance of cotton strains with high gossypol content to Heliothis spp. J. Econ. Entomol., 62:588-591.
Meisner, J, Ishaaya, I, Archer, KRS, Zur, M. (1978). Gossypol inhibits protease and amylase activity Spodoptera littoralis larvae. Ann. Entomol. Sci. Am., 71:5-8.
Meng, Y, Nathalie, V, Hao, X, Lingfei, H, Ted CJT, Matthias, E. (2018). An herbivore-induced plant volatile reduces parasitoid attraction by changing the smell of caterpillars. Sci. Adv., 4: 4767.
Stipanovic, RD, López, JD, Dowd, MK, Puckhaber, LS, Duke, SE. (2008). Effect of racemic, (+)- and (−)-gossypol on survival and development of Heliothis virescens larvae. Environ. Entomol., 37:1081-1085.
Wu, G, Chen, J, Ge, F, Sun, YC. (2007). Response of successive three senerations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigeraHübner fed on cotton bolls, under elevated CO2. J. Environ. Sci., 19:1318-1325.
Wu, G, Guo, YJ, Wan, HF, Xiao, WN. (2010). Responses of three successive generations of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, fed exclusively on different levels of gossypol in cotton leaves. J. Insect. Sci., 10:165.