Document Type : Original Article


Department Insect Population Toxicology, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agriculture Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt


Background: The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most destructive agricultural lepidopteran pests in Egypt, attacking several important crops all year round. S. littoralis can have two to seven generations per year, depending on the climate of the region; for example, changes in temperature affect all life processes of S. littoralis.
Methods: The development, survival, and fecundity of S. littoralis at one of five constant temperatures as well as their effects on the biochemical impacts were investigated.
Results: The results showed that the duration of developmental stage (eggs, instars, pupae), longevity, and fecundity significantly decreased with increasing temperature from 15 to 35 ºC. Larvae emerged fastest from the eggs at 25 °C. The percentage of oviposited females was 46, 58, 74.5, 66.5, and 50% at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C, respectively. The results also showed that the fourth larval instars of S. littoralis at 25 oC had a higher level of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and free amino acids in comparison with those larvae at 35 oC. Therefore, temperature rise leads to increasing metabolic rate, and decreasing the development period.
Conclusion: Thus, 25 °C was the optimum temperature for development, fecundity, rates of biochemical and physiological reactions of S. littoralis.

Graphical Abstract

Biological and Biochemical Impacts of Temperature on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval)


1. Kobori Y, Hanboosong Y. (2017). Effect of temperature on the development and reproduction of the sugarcane white leaf insect vector, Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). J. Asia-Pac. Entomol., 20:281–284.
2. Kroschel JM, Sporleder HEZ, Tonnang H, Juarez P, Carhuapoma J, Gonzales C, Simon R. (2013). Predicting climate-change-caused changes in global temperature on potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) distribution  and abundance using phenology modeling and GIS mapping. Agric. Forest Meteorol., 15:228–241.
3. Manimanjari D, Srinivasa Rao M, Swathi P, Ramarao CA, Vanaja M, Maheswari M. (2014). Temperature and CO2-dependent life table parameters of Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) on sunflower and prediction of  pest scenarios. J. Insect Sci., 14:297.
4. Ismail SM. (2019). Field evaluation of recommended compounds to control some pests attacking cotton and their side effects on associated predators. J. Biol. Chem., 36:113-121.
5. Bradford MM. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantization of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein- dye binding. Anal. Biochem.,72:248-254.
6. Singh NB, Sinha RN. (1977). Carbohydrates, lipids, and protein in the developmental stages of Sitophillus oryzea and Sitophillus grannarius Ann.Ent. Sos. Am., 107-111.
7. Knight JA, Anderson S, Rawle JM. (1972). Chemical basis of the sulfophospho-vanillin reaction for estimating total serum lipids. Clin. Chem., 18:199-202.
8. Lee YP, Takabashi T. (1966). An improved colorimetric determination of amino acids with the use of ninhydrin. Anal. Biochem., 14:71-77.
9. Li GP, Feng QH, Huang B, Zhong J, Tian HC, Qiu F, Huang JR. (2017). Effects of short-term heat stress on survival and fecundity of two plant bugs: Apolygus lucorumm (Meyer-Dür) and Adelphocoris suturalis Jakovlev (Hemiptera: Miridae). Acta Ecol. Sin., 37:3939–3945.
10. Xu P, Xu HZ, Li JS, Xu WG, Li QH, Sheng QX. (2012). Life table of an laboratory population of Comstock mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Acta Entomol. Sin., 55:1362–1367.
11. Qin J, Zhang L, Liu Y, Sappington WT, Cheng Y, Luo L, Jiang X. (2017). Population projection and development of the mythimna loreyi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as affected by temperature: application of an age-stage, two-sex life table. J. Econ. Entomol., 110:1583–1591.
12. Qin HG, Ye XZ, Ding J, Hung JS, Luo HR. (2002). Effect of temperature on the development, survival, and fecundity of Spodoptera litura Fabricius. Chin. J. Eco. Agricul., 10:76–79.
13. Kuang XJ, Sun HX, Huang F, Xue SF. (2010). Effect of temperature on mating behavior of Colaphellus bowringi Baly. J. Environ. Entomol.,32: 307–311.
14. Cao ML, Tao B, Liu S, Dong GJ, He ZY. (2012). Influence of temperature on an experimental population of Athetis lepigone (Möschler). Acta Phytophy. Sin., 39:531–535.
15. Qian X, Wang YY, Xie HH, Dou J, Li WZ, Jashenko R, Ji R. (2017). Effects of temperature on the activities of key enzymes related to respiratory metabolism in adults of Gomphocerus sibiricus (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Acta Entomol. Sin., 60:499–504.
16. Sonmez E, Gulel A. (2008). Effect of different temperatures on the total carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins amount of the bean beetles, Acanthoscelides obtectus say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Pakistan J. Biol. Sci., 11:1803-1808.
17. Lee KP, Roh C. (2010). Temperature-by-nutrient interactions affecting growth rate  in an insect ectotherm. Entomol. Experiment. Appl., 136:151-163.
18. Lemoine PN, Shantz AA. (2016). Increased temperature causes protein limitation by reducing the efficiency of nitrogen digestion in the ectothermic herbivore Spodoptera exigua. Physiol. Entomol. 41:143-151.