Document Type : Original Article


Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


One of the possible ways to ensure future food needs of an increasing world population involves the better water use through the development of crop varieties which need less water and are more tolerant to drought. In order to study the response of twenty landraces of bread wheat to drought stress, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications under two irrigated and water stres conditions during 2010-2011 cropping season. Sixteen  drought tolerance indices including stress tolerance index (STI), stress susceptibility index (SSI), tolerance index (TOL), harmonic mean (HM), geometric mean productivity (GMP), mean productivity (MP), yield index (YI), yield stability index (YSI), sensitive drought index (SDI), drought resistance index (DI), abiotic tolerance index (ATI), relative decrease in yield index (RDY), stress non-stress production index (SNPI), modified stress tolerance index (MSTI), relative drought index (RDI) and stress susceptibility percentage index (SSPI) were calculated based on grain yield under drought (Ys) and irrigated (Yp) conditions. Grain yield in stress (Ys) condition was significantly and positively correlated with STI, GMP, MP, HM, YI, DI, RDI, YSI, SNPI, K1STI and K2STI. Grain yield in non-stress (Yp) condition was significantly and positively correlated with STI, MP, GMP, HM, YI, DI, ATI, K1STI, K2STI and SNPI. Grain yield in stress and non-stress conditions was significantly and negatively correlated with SSI. Results of this study showed that the indices K1STI, K2STI, SSPI, RDI, ATI, SNPI, and DI can be used as the most suitable indicators for screening drought tolerant cultivars. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups i.e., tolerant, susceptible and semi-tolerant or semi-sensitive to drought conditions. Therefore they are recommended to be used as parents for improvement of drought tolerant cultivars.


Abebe, T., Arro, C.G., Bjorn, M., John, C.C. (2003). Tolerance of mannitol-accumulating transgenic wheat to water stress and salinity. Plant Physiology, 131: 1748-1755.
Bouslama, M., Schapaugh, W.T. (1984). Stress tolerance in soybean. Part 1: evaluation of three   screening techniques for heat and drought tolerance. Crop Science, 24: 933-937.
Boyer, J.S. (1982): Plant productivity and environments. Science, 218: 443-448.
Clarke, J.M., DePauw, R.M., Townley Smith, T.F. (1992). Evaluation of methods for quantification of drought tolerance in wheat. Crop Science, 32: 423-428.
Dehghani, G.H., Malekshhi, F., Alizadeh, B. (2009). A Study of Drought Tolerance Indices in Canola (Brassica napus L.) Genotypes. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 13(48): 77-90.
Ehdaie, B., Shakiba, M.R. (1996). Relationship of inter node specific weight and water-soluble carbohydrates in wheat. Cereal Research Communication, 24: 61-67.
Farshadfar, E., Elyasi, P. (2012). Screening quantitative indictors of drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2(3): 577-584.
Farshadfar, E., Pour Siahbidi, M.M., Pour Abooghadareh, A.R. (2012). Repeatability of drought tolerance indices in bread wheat genotypes. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Science, 4(13): 891-903.
Farshadfar, E., Sutka, J. (2002). Multivariate analysis of drought tolerance in wheat substitution lines. Cereal Research Communication, 31: 33-39.
Farshadfar, E., Ghannadha, M., Zahravi, M., Sutka, J. (2001). Genetic analysis of drought tolerance in wheat. Plant Breeding, 114: 542-544.
Fernandez, G.C.J. (1992). Effective selection criteria for assessing plant stress tolerance. In: Kuo CG (ed) Proceedings of the International Symposium on Adaptation of Vegetables and other Food Crops in Temperature and Water Stress, Publication, Tainan, Taiwan.
Fischer, R.A., Maurer, R. (1978). Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars. I. Grain yield responses. Australian Journal of Agricultural  Research, 29: 897-912.
Fischer, R.A., Rees, D., Sayre, K.D., Lu, Z.M., Condon, A.G., Saavedra, A.L. (1998). Wheat yield progress associated with higher stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate, and cooler Canopies. Crop Science, 38: 1467-1475.
Gavuzzi, P., Rizza, F., Palumbo, M., Campaline, R.G., Ricciardi, G.L., Borghi, B. (1997). Evaluation of field and laboratory predictors of drought and heat tolerance in winter cereals. Plant Science, 77: 523-531.
Golabadi, M.A., Arzani, S.A., Maibody, M. (2006). Assessment of drought tolerance in segregating populations in durum wheat. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(5): 62-171.
Guttieri, M.J., Stark, J.C., Brien, K., Souza, E. (2001). Relative sensitivity of spring wheat grain yield and quality parameters to moisture deficit. Crop Science, 41: 327-335.
Hall, A.E. (1993). Is dehydration tolerance relevant to genotypic differences in leaf senescence and crop adaptation to dry environments? In: Close TJ and Bray EA (Eds) Plant Responses to cellular Dehydration during environmental stress, 1-10.
Ilker, E., Tatar, O., Aykut Tonk, F., Tosun, M., Turk, J. (2011). Determination of Tolerance Level of Some Wheat Genotypes to Post-Anthesis Drought. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 16(1): 59-63.
Khalili, M., Naghavi, M.R, Pour Aboughadareh, A.R, Talebzadeh, S.J. (2012). Evaluating of drought stress tolerance based on selection indices in spring canola cultivars (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(11): 78-85.
Lan, J. (1998), Comparison of evaluating methods for agronomic drought resistance in crops. Acta Agric Boreali-occidentalis Sinica 7: 85–87.
Ludlow, M.M., Muchow, R.C. (1990): A critical evaluation of traits for improving crop yields in water-limited environment. Advances in  Agronomy, 43: 107-153.
Mevlut, A., Sait, C. (2011). Evaluation of drought tolerance indices for selection of Turkish oat (Avena sativa L.) landraces under various environmental conditions. Zemdirbyste Agriculture, 98 (2): 157-166.
Mitra, J. (2001). Genetics and genetic improvement of drought resistance in crop plants. Current Science, 80: 758-762.
Mohammadi, R., Haghparast, R., Aghaei Sarbarzeh, M., Abdollahi, A. (2006). Evaluation of drought tolerance rate of advanced genotypes of Durum wheat on the basis of physiologic standards and other related indices. Iranian Agricultural Sciences, 3 (1): 561-567.
Moosavi, S.S., Yazdi Samadi, B., Naghavi, M.R, Zali, A.A, Dashti, H., Pourshahbazi, A. (2008). Introduction of new indices to identify relative drought tolerance and resistance in wheat genotypes. Desert, 12: 165-178.
Ramirez, P., Kelly, J. (1998). Traits related to drought resistance in common bean. Euphytica, 99: 127-136.
Rosielle, A.A, Hamblin, J. (1981). Theoretical aspects of selection for yield in stress and non-stress environments. Crop Science, 21: 943-946.
Toorchi, M., Naderi, R., Kanbar, A., Shakiba, M.R. (2012). Response of spring canola cultivars to sodium chloride stress. Annals of Biological Research, 2(5): 312-322.
Zhang, J., Wensuo, J., Jianchang, Y., Abdelbegi, M.I. (2006). Role of ABA in integrating plant responses to drought and salt stress. Field Crops Research, 97: 111-119.