In today's world, the beauty of body and face is one of our main concerns. Accordingly, many people perform various beauty procedures to make them more beautiful or to fix some appearance features that they are not satisfied with. One of the most popular cosmetic surgeries is breast surgery. This action makes the body more beautiful and well-shaped and will have a great effect on increasing people's self-confidence. Mammoplasty surgery is one of the types of breast cosmetic surgery that is done to make the breasts smaller and reduce their volume. Mammoplasty is perhaps a lesser-known procedure because it seems that women are more inclined to increase the volume of their breasts and have bigger breasts, but among women there are people who consider smaller breasts more beautiful. Likewise, the size of some women's breasts may not be proportionate to other parts of the body and may be a little bigger. For this reason, the breasts will put pressure on the neck or shoulder and cause pain in it. These cases make women think of mammoplasty as a way to make their body more beautiful and fit. Mammoplasty is a process in which changes are made in the breast appearance with various surgical interventions. The final goal of this process is to solve the beauty problems that have occurred due to various things such as aging, childbirth, and pregnancy, or undergoing breast-related treatments, and the breasts appearance has undergone deformity. Mammoplasty is performed in the form of a general pattern on the breasts. These models include augmentation mammoplasty, reduction mammoplasty, reconstructive mammoplasty, and mastopexy. In this article, the secret of surgery, along with the description of mammoplasty patterns, examines various aspects such as the recovery process, preparing for mammoplasty surgery, post-mammoplasty care and many other cases with the aim of paving the way to help you get answers to your questions in this field will pay.
Before performing mammoplasty, the surgeon should thoroughly examine the patient and make sure of his health status. Therefore, counseling sessions are held before the operation, in which the patient should complete all his medical records. The doctor and the patient talk about his expectations to finally reach a single result and the patient does not have unrealistic expectations of the result of the operation. In these meetings, tests are also prescribed, according to which the general state of health and the degree of his readiness for the operation will be measured. General anesthesia is usually used in this procedure.
Before anesthetizing the patient, the surgeon precisely determines the areas of breast incision, because determining these areas during the patient's anesthesia is difficult and increases the possibility of error. Usually, three types of incisions are made in mammoplasty surgery, and these incisions will be selected according to the texture and size of the breast. Mammoplasty surgical incisions may be made in the brown halo of the breast and in a circular manner. Keyhole incision and inverted T incision are other types of mammoplasty incisions. After making these incisions, the surgeon removes the skin and extra breast tissue and corrects the shape of the breast. The method of surgery and its technique also depends on the anatomy of the patient's body and his expectations. After correcting the breasts texture and making them symmetrical, it may be necessary to change the nipple location. In such cases, the new position of the nipple is determined, and then by removing the excess tissue, the nipple is placed in its new position. The duration of mammoplasty is about 4 hours and the initial recovery period is one to two weeks. The results of the operation cannot be seen immediately after the mammoplasty, because the scars and swelling affect the results after the operation. Another point is that the results of mammoplasty vary from person to person. Therefore, it is better not to compare the results of surgery with others, because this will only reduce self-confidence or dissatisfaction with the result of the operation.
The method of mammoplasty surgery
1- Augmentation mammoplasty: Some women think their breasts are too small. Some have shrunk their breasts due to childbirth and pregnancy and want to increase their breast size due to dissatisfaction with their breast size. Augmentation mammoplasty, which is actually breast prosthesis (Figure 1), is performed by implants placed in strategic positions in the breast area. The incisions created in this process are also in strategic positions, and the doctor tries to make the incisions invisible after healing. Women who want augmentation mammoplasty, do this surgery for various reasons:
- Improving the fit of the breasts with the body and increasing self-confidence.
- Correction of the lost volume of the breasts after pregnancy and childbirth.
- To reshape or enlarge breasts that have lost their shape due to breastfeeding or aging.
- To reconstruct the breasts and make them fit after breast emptying or mastectomy.
Augmentation mammoplasty involves the placement of special implants or prostheses under the breasts tissue, which are placed under the muscle of the chest wall or pectoral. This placement brings the breast tissue forward and makes the breasts appear larger. According to the American society of plastic and aesthetic surgeons, more than 347,000 women undergo augmentation mammoplasty every year. Most of these surgeries are performed on an outpatient basis. Most women who undergo this surgery are between the ages of 19 and 24. While augmentation mammoplasty surgery helps to increase the size of women's breasts, it cannot provide them with an ideal and flawless appearance. In addition, breast prostheses require special care and, in some cases, ultrasound needs to be performed at certain intervals. Women who are physically healthy and have realistic expectations of surgery are often the best candidates for augmentation mammoplasty.
Figure 1. Biology, birth control, meaning, methods, and types
2- Reduction mammoplasty: Reduction mammoplasty is a surgical procedure that is often performed on women with large and heavy breasts. These women experience many problems due to problems such as neck pain, back pain, numbness, or weakness in these areas that occur due to the breasts weight. Reduction mammoplasty surgery is performed for women who have excessively large breasts and intend to fix the following problems:
- Back pain, neck pain, and shoulder pain that require drug therapy.
- Chronic rashes and skin sensitivity under the breasts.
- Nerve pain in the area.
- Restriction of movements and activities.
- Ugly self-image due to excessively large breasts.
- Breast mismatch in bras and clothes.
3- Reconstructive mammoplasty: Reconstructive mammoplasty surgery is often performed on women who have lost a major part of their breast after being treated for breast cancer. In this process, the breast is reconstructed until it reaches the desired shape, contour, and volume. The nipple and areola are further restored. Normal breast sensation and function, such as the ability to breastfeed, cannot be returned after surgery. Restorative mammoplasty can be performed at any time after mastectomy. This process has no effect on the cancer return.
4- Mastopexy: In some women, the skin is not strong enough to support the weight of the breasts, and this causes the breasts to hang. In this condition, which is also known as ptosis, the skin is too much compared to the breast tissue. For a breast lift, excess skin must be removed. It is a fact that breasts change a lot over time and gradually lose their freshness and youth. Many factors can change the shape of the breasts, which include:
- Multiple pregnancies: During pregnancy, the bands of tissue that hold the breasts up may change. This happens when the breasts become fuller and heavier. In fact, stretching causes sagging of the breast after pregnancy, and this issue has nothing to do with breastfeeding the baby.
- Breast feeding.
- Extreme weight fluctuations: weight changes can cause stretching of the breast skin. It can also cause the breast skin to be less elastic. Severe and significant weight loss is one of the most important causes of breast sagging.
- Age increase.
- Earth's gravity: Over time, gravity causes the chest ligaments to stretch and sag.
- Genetic factors: These factors are a natural part of many women's lives, and some of them are unavoidable.
Complications of mammoplasty: Mammoplasty is a surgical procedure under general anesthesia. Therefore, the most common side effects after this procedure are related to anesthetic drugs. Post-operative headache, dizziness, and nausea are related to anesthetics. Likewise, the feeling of pain, swelling, inflammation, itching, and burning in the surgical site is further completely normal and will be completely recovered a few days after the surgery. Of course, in some cases, these side effects may last for several months, but it is better to inform the doctor if the side effects continue for more than ten days. Another concern of people after mammoplasty is the remaining scars and stitches. It should be emphasized that skilled surgeons make incisions for this operation in places that cannot be seen. Therefore, even if the scars remain, there is no damage to the person's beauty. Of course, the method of cutting and stitching in this operation is such that minimal scars remain, and after a while, the stitches and scars are hardly recognizable. In addition, the doctor may prescribe ointments for the patient after the operation to help make the scars lighter. One of the other concerns about mammography is that performing this procedure will cause damage to the tissue and nerves of the breast by performing this operation by skilled surgeons, no damage is done to the breast tissue and its nerves, because the doctor of these centers has enough expertise and skill and knows where to make the incisions so as not to damage the nerves and veins of the chest. Of course, in the first days and even months after the operation, the patient may have numbness in the whole chest or its parts. This issue is due to the use of anesthetics, which resolves over time. Therefore, there is no need to worry and the breasts numbness will disappear as the complications are resolved.
Durability of mammoplasty
The change in the breasts size can be felt immediately after the surgery, but swelling and other complications after the operation do not allow the real results to appear. That's why you have to wait for some time for the results of your operation to show. The real results of the mammoplasty operation show themselves about one to one and a half years after the surgery and these results will remain for the rest of the life. Of course, the effect of weight changes and aging should not be ignored. If the patient does not properly follow the post-operative recommendations and does not lead a proper lifestyle after the operation, the breasts will become droopy and lose their shape. Of course, this does not mean that the breasts size will return to the previous state with the passage of time and failure to follow the recommendations. The size of the breasts is constant until the end of life, but their shape may change and they may sag.
Mammoplasty is a process in which changes are made in the appearance of the breast with a variety of surgical interventions, which are performed to change the breasts volume and make them more beautiful, or for therapeutic purposes such as the treatment of neck pain. The purpose of doing this procedure is not just beauty and fitness.
How to cite this article: Parmiss Adyani Kalvanagh, Yousef Adyani Kalvanagh*. An Overview of Mammoplasty, Surgical Method, Types of Mammoplasty, and Considerations during Surgery. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 2023, 11(1), 48-55. Link: http://www.ijabbr.com/article_703999.html
Copyright © 2023 by authors and SPC (Sami Publishing Company) + is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License(CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.