Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

3 Young Researchers and Elite club, Jiroft Branch, Islamic Azad University, Jiroft, Iran


To evaluate the genetic diversity in twenty barley genotypes, an experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was done at Agriculture Researches Station of Ardabil, Iran in 2009-10. Investigated traits of this study was included days to flowering, plant height, 1000 seed weight, number of infertile tiller, number of seed per spike, harvest index, days to maturity, straw yield and grain yield. The comparison of means indicated that the genotypes 14, 19, 10, 20 and 16 were placed in the superior group from most traits points of views. It had been an indicator of high potential of the genotypes from agronomy and morphological points of views. Therefore, considering the results of mean comparison of the traits, these genotypes can be introduced as the superior genotypes. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis method and varimax rotation indicate that three important factors accounted 87.55% of the total variation among traits. The second factor that accounted for 34.69% of the total variations had a positive relationship with the number of grain spike, grain yield, grain weight 1000 and harvest index. Therefore we introduced the second factor as an effective factor in increasing the grain yield.


Ahmadizadeh, M., Nori, A., Shahbazi, H. and Habibpour, M. (2011a). Effects of drought stress on some agronomic and morphological traits of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) landraces under greenhouse condition. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(64): 14097-14107.
Ahmadizadeh, M., Shahbazi, H., Valizadeh, M. and Zaefizadeh, M. (2011b). Genetic diversity of durum wheat landraces using multivariate analysis under normal irrigation and rought stress conditions. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(10): 2294-2302.
Babaiy, A.H., Aharizad, S., Mohammadi, A. and Yarnia, M. (2011). Survey, correlation of yield and yield components in 40 lines barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in region Tabriz. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 10(2): 149-152.
Bramel, P.J., Hinnze, P.N., Green, D.E. and Shibles, R.M. (1984). Use of principal actor analysis in the study of three stem termination type’s ofsoybean. Euphytica 33: 387-400.
Cooper, J.C.B. (1983). Factor analysis. An overview Am. Statist, 37: 141-147.
Damania, A.B. and Jackson, M.T. (1986). An application of factor analysis to morphological data of wheat and barley landraces from the Bheri River Valley, Nepal. Rachis, 5(2): 25-30.
Eskandari, H. and Kazemi, K. (2010). Response of different bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes to post-anthesis water deficit. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 2(4): 49-52.
Farahani, E. and Arzani, A. (2008). Evaluation of genetic variation of durum wheat genotypes using multivariate analyses. Electronic Journal of Crop Production, 1(4): 51-64.
Garavandi, M. and Kahrizi, D. (2010). Evaluation of genetic diversity of bread wheat genotypes for phonologic and morphologic traits. The 11th Crop Science and Plant Breeding Congress Iran. pp: 537-541.
Garcia Del Moral, L.F., Rharrabti, Y., Villegas, D. and Royo, C. (2003). Evaluation of grain yield and its components in durum wheat under Mediterranean conditions: An ontogeny approach. Agronomy Journal, 95(2): 266-274.
Gholamin, R., Zaeifizadeh, M. and Khayatnezhad, M. (2010). Factor analysis for performance and other characteristics in durum wheat under drought stress and without stress. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 6(6): 599-603.
Golparvar, A.R., Ghannadha, M.R., Zali, A.A. and Ahmadi, A. (2002). Evaluation of some morphological traits as selection criteria for improvement of bread wheat. Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 4(3): 202-207.
Heydari, B., Saeedi, Gh., Seyyed-Tabatabaei, B.A. and Soenaga, K. (2006). Evaluation of genetic diversity and estimation of heritability of some quantity traits in double haploid lines of wheat. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 37(2): 347-356.
Innes, P., Hoogendoorn, J. and Blackwell, R.D. (1985). Effects of difference in data of early emergence and height on yield of winter wheat. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 105: 543-549.
Khayatnezhad, M., Zaefizadeh, M., Gholamin, R., jamaati-e-Somarin, S. and Zabihi-e-Mahmoodabad, R. (2010). Study of morphological traits of wheat cultivars through factor analysis. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 9(5): 460-464.
Mohammadi, M., Ghanadha, M.R. and Taleei, A. (2002). Study of the genetic variation within Iranian local bread wheat lines using multivariate techniques. Seed Plant Improvement Journal, 18(3): 328-347.
Molasadeghi, V. and Shahryari, R. (2011). Grouping bread wheat genotypes under terminal drought in the presence of humic fertilizer by use of multivariate statistical analysis. Advances in Environmental Biology, 5(3): 510-515.
Peltonen-Sainio, P., Kangas, A., Salo, Y. and Jauhiainen, L. (2007). Grain number dominates grain weight in temperate cereal yield determination: Evidence based on 30 years of multi location trials. Field Crops Research, 100:179-188.
Tousi-Mojarrad, M., Ghanadha, M.R., Khodarahimi, M. and Shahabi, S. (2005). Factor analysis for grain yield and other attributes in bread wheat. Journal Pazhohesh, Sazandegi, 66: 9-16.
Xiao, H. and Pei, X. (1991). Applying factor analysis method to study Winter wheat quantity characters and varieties classification. Acta Agriculture Universitatis Pekinen Science, 17: 17-24.
Yildrim, M., Budak, N. and Arshas, Y. (1993). Factor analysis of yield and related traits in bread wheat. Turkish Journal Field Crop, 1: 11-15.
Walton, P.D. (1971). The use of factor analysis in determining characters for yield selection in wheat. Euphytica, 20: 416-421.
Wang, H., McCaig, T.N., Depauw, R.M., Larke, F.R.C. and Clarck, J.M. (2002). Physiological characteristics of recent Canada western red spring wheat cultivars: Yield components and dry matter production. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 82: 299-306.
Zaefizadeh, M., Ghasemi, M., Azimi, J., Khayatnezhad, M. and Ahadzadeh, B. (2011). Correlation analysis and path analysis for yield and its components in hulless barley. Advances in Environmental Biology, 5(1): 123-126.
Zakizadeh, M., Esmaeilzadeh, M. and Kahrizi, D. (2010). Study on genetic variation and relationship between plant characteristics and grain yield in long spike bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes using multivariate analysis. Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 12(2):18-30.