Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Federal University Otuoke, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, North East Nigeria

3 Technical Officer-PMTCT, PEAD/Adolescent, ECEWS, Osun State, AP3 Lead, Nigeria


Hepatitis B viral infection is one of the major global public health problems which are a hushed killers in the world. This virus infection is transmitted through body fluid with an infected individual. This study focuses on the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, specifically examining the presence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies (HBsAb) among individuals in Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. The research which was conducted in Wukari metropolis, sampled 100 persons of which male were 35 and female were 75 with age range from 15 to 45 years, using standard serological procedures, specifically Combo Rapid test immunochromatographic test strips. This study showed an 18% prevalence of HBsAg and a 15% prevalence of HBsAb, revealing a relatively low overall occurrence of active HBV infections. The results also show Sero- positive of HBsAg was more in male (20%) compared to females (16.9%). In contrast, the HBsAb Sero- positive was more in female (14.7%) than in male (11.4%). In terms of age group 21-25 years has the highest age based HBsAg prevalence of 40%. Also, gender disparities and age-based trends suggest higher susceptibility among certain demographics which is notably among males demonstrating a higher prevalence of HBsAg which is possibly influenced by behavioral factors and healthcare-seeking behaviors. However, females exhibited a higher prevalence of HBsAb, indicating potential immunity from past infection or vaccination. In conclusion, the findings of this study underscore the importance of encouraging individuals to undergo screening and ascertain their hepatitis B virus (HBV) status. This proactive approach is essential for effective management, thereby reducing the risk of developing cirrhosis and liver cancer, as well as preventing transmission to others. Therefore, for individuals who test positive for HBV, early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and vaccination are crucial preventive measures. It is imperative to emphasize the necessity of enhancing vaccination rates and healthcare assessments in Wukari to mitigate the risks associated with HBV infection effectively.

Graphical Abstract

Assessment of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Immunity Status Amid Inhabitants of Wukari in Taraba State, North-East Nigeria: A Community-Based Study


Main Subjects


©2024 The author(s). This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit:


Sami Publishing Company remains neutral concerning jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


Sami Publishing Company



  1. Olayinka AT, Oyemakinde A, Balogun MS, Ajudua A, Nguku P, Aderinola M, Egwuenu-Oladejo A, Ajisegiri SW, Sha'aibu S, Musa BO, Gidado S. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B infection in Nigeria: A national survey. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2016 Oct 10;95(4):902. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  2. Veracruz N, Gish RG, Cheung R, Chitnis AS, Wong RJ. Global incidence and mortality of hepatitis B and hepatitis C acute infections, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma from 2010 to 2019. Journal of Viral Hepatitis. 2022 May;29(5):352-65. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  3. Kenneth IE, Vivian AI, Onolunosen AA, Husseni I. The immunological evaluate of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) co-infection with plasmodium in Wukari, Taraba State, North East, Nigeria. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  4. Gentile I, Borgia G. Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus: challenges and solutions. International Journal of Women's Health. 2014 Jun 10:605-11. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  5. Jiang X, Chang L, Yan Y, Wang L. Paradoxical HBsAg and anti-HBs coexistence among chronic HBV infections: causes and consequences. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021;17(4):1125. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  6. Imarenezor EP, Brown ST, Yakubu OE, Soken DC. Survey of hepatitis B and C among students of Federal University Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2016;4(3):31-7. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  7. Makuza JD, Rwema JO, Ntihabose CK, Dushimiyimana D, Umutesi J, Nisingizwe MP, Serumondo J, Semakula M, Riedel DJ, Nsanzimana S. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity and its associated factors in Rwanda. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2019 Dec;19:1-0. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  8. World Health Organization. Global hepatitis report 2017. World Health Organization; 2017. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  9. Lemoine M, Eholié S, Lacombe K. Reducing the neglected burden of viral hepatitis in Africa: strategies for a global approach. Journal of Hepatology. 2015 Feb 1;62(2):469-76. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  10. Imarenezor EP, Abhadionmhen OA, Danya S, Briska J, Shinggu PP. Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B virus and plasmodium co-infection profile among patients in Wukari and Environs, North East Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Research Archive. 2021;3(1):114-23. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  11. Levrero M, Zucman-Rossi J. Mechanisms of HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal of Hepatology. 2016 Apr 1;64(1):S84-101. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  12. Omatola CA, Onoja BA, Agama J. Detection of hepatitis B surface antigen among febrile patients in Ankpa, Kogi State, Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2020 Feb 11;2020. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  13. Leuridan E, Van Damme P. Hepatitis B and the need for a booster dose. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2011 Jul 1;53(1):68-75. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  14. Forbi JC, Gabadi S, Alabi R, Iperepolu HO, Pam CR, Entonu PE, Agwale SM. The role of triple infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type-1 on CD4+ lymphocyte levels in the highly HIV infected population of North-Central Nigeria. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 2007;102:535-7. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  15. Sirisena ND, Njoku MO, Idoko JA, Isamade E, Barau C, Jelpe D, Zamani A, Otowo S. Carriage rate of hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) in an urban community in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2002 Jan 1;9(1):7-10. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  16. Olatunji PO, Iseniyi JO. Hepatitis B and C viruses co-infection with Human Immodeficiency Virus (HIV) in infected patients at UITH, Ilorin. Nigerian Medical Practitioner. 2008 Sep 30;54(1):8-10. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  17. Nwokedi EE, Emokpae MA, Taura AA, Dutse AI. The trend of hepatitis B surface antigenimia among teaching hospital patients in Kano. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. 2006 Nov 28;7(3):143-7. [Google scholar]
  18. Orito E, Mizokami M, Sakugawa H, Michitaka K, Ishikawa K, Ichida T, Okanoue T, Yotsuyanagi H, Iino S. A case‐control study for clinical and molecular biological differences between hepatitis B viruses of genotypes B and C. Hepatology. 2001 Jan;33(1):218-23. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  19. Lodenyo H, Schoub B, Ally R, Kairu S, Segal I. Hepatitis B and C virus infections and liver function in AIDS patients at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Johannesburg. East African Medical Journal. 2000;77(1). [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  20. Berinyuy BE, Alawode RA, Mohammed AB, Babalola BS, Mustapha A, Oshevire RM, Okunlola MB, Lawal A. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus in Nigeria: review update. Annals of Public Health & Epidemiology. 1(1):1-7. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  21. Lesi OA, Kehinde MO, Oguh DN, Amira CO. Hepatitis B and C virus infection in Nigerian patients with HIV/AIDS. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2007 Apr 1;14(2):129-33. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  22. Ejele OA, Nwauche CA, Erhabor O. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in HIV positive patients in the Niger Delta Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Medicine: Journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria. 2004 Apr 1;13(2):175-9. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  23. Akyala IA, Obande G, Ishaleku D. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C co-infection among cohort seropositive HIV patients accessing healthcare in Nasarawa state, North Central Nigeria. British Journal of Psychological Research. 2013;1(1):15-24. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  24. Amidu N, Alhassan A, Obirikorang C, Feglo P, Majeed SF, Timmy-Donkoh E, Afful D. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) antigen in three densely populated communities in Kumasi, Ghana. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences. 2012;1(2). [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  25. Abhadionmhen OA, Imarenezor EP. The prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the United Kingdom (Uk): A critical review. International Journal of Scientific Research. 2022;4:329-33. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  26. Imarenezor EPK, Anyiam IV, Abhadionmhen OA, Ndubuisi MN, Ekeh AP, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Co-Infections among Patients attending General Hospital, Wukari, Taraba State, North East, Nigeria. International Journal of Medical and All Body Health Research, 2023; 4(2);36-42. [PDF]
  27. Bashir Hamidu R, Chalikonda DM, Hann HW. Gender disparity in host responses to hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma: a case series. Vaccines. 2021 Jul 30;9(8):838. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  28. Adekanle O, Komolafe AO, Ijarotimi O, Olowookere AS, Ndububa DA. Gender disparity and stigma experience of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection: A prospective cross-sectional study from a hospital in Nigeria. Journal of Infection Prevention. 2022 Nov;23(6):263-8. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  29. Omote V, Kashibu E, Ojumah I, Adda D, Etaghene J, Ukwamedua H. Serological screening of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among patients attending a tertiary hospital in Jalingo, Taraba state, Nigeria. Saudi Journal for Health Sciences. 2018 Sep 1;7(3):167-71. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  30. Tula MY, Iyoha O. A Cross-sectional Study on the Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) among Apparently Healthy Students of a Tertiary Institution in North-Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health. 2015;7(3):102-8. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  31. Mak D, Kramvis A. Epidemiology and aetiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Sub-Saharan Africa. Hepatoma Research. 2021;7(39):10-20517. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  32. Shi Y, Zheng M. Hepatitis B virus persistence and reactivation. BMJ. 2020 Sep 1;370. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  33. Nwachukwu NO, Okoronkwo CU, Duru PN. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B viral infection in the okpoko community. Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal (BBRJ). 2022 Jul 1;6(3):454-7. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  34. Butt AQ, Suleiman AB, Musa FM. Sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B markers among blood donors from National Blood Transfusion Service centre in Kaduna, Nigeria. Science World Journal. 2020;15(2):30-4. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  35. Aniche OM, Orabueze IN, Nwafia IN, Ihezuo JU, Chinaka CB, Egbe KA, Ike AC. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus seromarkers in female sex workers in enugu state, Nigeria. Venereology. 2022 Jun 1;1(1):124-34. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  36. Kilich E, Dada S, Francis MR, Tazare J, Chico RM, Paterson P, Larson HJ. Factors that influence vaccination decision-making among pregnant women: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one. 2020 Jul 9;15(7):e0234827. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  37. Kyotos KB, Oduma J, Wahome RG, Kaluwa C, Abdirahman FA, Opondoh A, Mbobua JN, Muchibi J, Bagnol B, Stanley M, Rosenbaum M. Gendered barriers and opportunities for women smallholder farmers in the contagious caprine Pleuropneumonia vaccine value chain in Kenya. Animals. 2022 Apr 14;12(8):1026. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  38. Qiu X, Bailey H, Thorne C. Barriers and facilitators associated with vaccine acceptance and uptake among pregnant women in high income countries: a mini-review. Frontiers in Immunology. 2021 Apr 26;12:626717. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  39. Morales DX, Beltran TF, Morales SA. Gender, socioeconomic status, and COVID‐19 vaccine hesitancy in the US: an intersectionality approach. Sociology of Health & Illness. 2022 Jun;44(6):953-71. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  40. Fathi A, Addo MM, Dahlke C. Sex differences in immunity: implications for the development of novel vaccines against emerging pathogens. Frontiers in Immunology. 2021 Jan 8;11:601170. [Crossref], [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  41. Kenneth IE. Incidence of Malaria Parasite in Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women in Ewohimi, Edo State, Nigeria. American Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2017;4(6):97-9. [Google scholar], [Publisher]
  42. Imarenezor EPK, Anyiam VI, Abhadionmhen OA, Ofiri PN, Pervasiveness and Sway of Peptic Ulcer Caused by Heliocobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) among Undergraduate Students in Wukari, Taraba State, North East, Nigeria. International Journal of Latest Technology in Engineering, Management & Applied Science (IJLTEMAS). 2023; XII,(X):160-165. [PDF]