Document Type : Review Article


1 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Baft Branch, Islamic Azad University, Baft, Iran

2 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

3 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Sirjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sirjan, Iran


Many anticancer drugs in clinical use interact with DNA through intercalation, which is process that starts with the transfer of the intercalating molecule from an aqueous environment to the hydrophobic space between two adjacent DNA base pairs. In general, intercalatig agents are two types: monofunctional and bifunctional. Monofunctional intercalators contain one intercalating unit and Bifunctional intercalators (bis-intercalators) contain two intercalating units, normally cationic, separated by a spacer chain that must be long   enough to allow double intercalation taking into account the neighbour exclusion principle.


Main Subjects

Graves, D. E.; and Velea, L. M. Intercalating binding of small molecules to nucleic acids. Curr. Org. Chem.2000; 4: 915-929.
Berman; H. M., and Young, P. R. the interaction of intercalating drugs with nucleic acids. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng.1981; 10: 87-114.
Gago, F. stacking interactions and intercalative DNA binding. Methods.1998; 14: 277-292.
Kapur, A.; Beck, J. L.; and Sheil, M. M. Rapid Commun. Observation of daunomycin and nagolamycin complexes with duplex DNA using electrospray mass spectroscopy. Mass Spectrom.1999; 13: 2489-2497.
Brana, M. F.; Cacho, M.; Gradillas, A.; de Pascual-Teresa, B. and Ramos, A. Intercalators and anticancer drugs. Curr. Pharm. Des.2001; 7: 1745-1780.
Garbett, N. C.; and Graves, D. E. Entending nature’s leads: the anticancer agent ellipticine. Curr. Med. Chem. Anticancer Agents.2004; 4: 149-172.
Gallego, J.;  Ortiz, A. R.; de Pascual-Teresa, B.; and Gago, F. J. computational methods on intercalators phenomena. Comput. Aided Mol. Des. 1997; 11: 114-122.
Ewesuedo, R. B.; Iyer, L.; Das, S.; Koenig,  A.;  Mani,  S.; Vogelzang, N. J.; Schilsky, R.   L.; Brenckman, W.; and Ratain, M. J. J. anticancer drugs. Clin. Oncol. 2001; 19: 2084-2098.
Ishida, K.; and Asao, T. Observation of daunomycin and nagolamycin complexes with duplex DNA. Nucl. Acids Symp. Ser. 1999; 42: 129-143. 
Brana, M. F.; and Ramos, A. naphtalimides as anticancer agents: synthesis and biological activity. Curr. Med. Chem. Anticancer Agents.2001; 1: 237-255.
De Isabella, P.; Zunino, F. and Capranico, G. sequence selectivity of topoisomerase DNA cleavage. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995; 23: 223-254.
Rosell, R.; Carles, J.; Abad, A.; Ribelles, N.; Barnadas, A.; Benavides, A.; and Martin M. Phase study of mitonafide in 120 hour continuous. Invest. New Drugs. 1992; 10: 171-175.
Allen, S. L.; Budman, D. R.; Fusco, D.; Kolitz, J.; Kreis, W.; Schulman, P.; Schuster, M.; DeMarco, L.;  Marsh, J.; Haptas, K. and Fischkoff, S. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 1994; 35: 325-331.
Asai, G.; Yamamoto, N.; Toi, M.; Shin, E.; Nishiyama, K.; Sekine, T.; Nomura, Y.; Takashima, S.; Kimura, M., and Tominaga, T. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 2002; 49: 468-478.
Portugal, J. Curr. Med. Chem. Elsamicine A and related anti-cancer antibiotics. Anticancer Agents. 2003; 3: 411-420.
Lambert, B.; Rocques, B. P.; and Le Pecq, J.B. DNA intercalation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988; 16: 1063-1070.
Gao, Q.; Williams, L. D.; Egli, M.; Rabinovich, D.; Le Chen, S.; Qugley, G.; and Rich, A. DNA induced DNA repair X-ray structure of a DNA-ditercalinium complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1991; 88: 2422-2431.
Brana, M. F.; Castellano,  J. M.; Moran, M.; Perez de Vega, M. J.; Romerdahl, C. R.; Qian, X.-D.; Bousquet, P.; Emling, F.; Schlick, E.; and Keilhauer, G. bis naphtalimides: a new class of antitumor agents. Anticancer Drug Des. 1993; 8: 257-268.
Villalona-Calero, M. A.; Eder, J. P.;  Toppmeyer,  D. L.;  Allen,  L.  F.;  Fram,  R.;  Velagapudi,  R.;  Myers, M.; Amato, A.; Kagen-Hallet, K.; Razvillas, B., Kufe, D. W., Von Hoff, D. D. DNA-ditercalinium complex. J. Clin. Oncol. 2001; 19: 857-864.
Bailly, C.; Carrasco, C.; Joubert, A.; Bal, C.; Wattez, N.; Hildebrand, M. P.; Lansiaux, A.; Colson, P.;  Houssier, C., Cacho, M., Ramos, A., and Brana, M. F. topoisomerase DNA cleavage. Biochemistry. 2003; 42: 4136-4141.
Wadler, S.; Tenteromano, L.;  Cazenave, L.;  Sparano, J. A.; Greenwald, E. S.;  Rozenblit, A.; Kaleya, R., and Wiernik, P. H. naphtalimides as anticancer. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 1994; 34: 266-272.