Document Type : Original Article


1 Dept. of Bio system, Mohaggeg Ardabili University, Iran

2 Dept. of Bio system, Urmia University, Iran

3 Dept. of Bio system, Tabriz University, Iran


Farming organic vegetable and crops have grown as a market desiring commodity. Weed control in farms has been costly and laborous and it has always been hard to achieve a proper weeding. A few chemicals are commonly applied in organic farming. Thermal weeding with flame burners seems a good solution; however, it has its own drawbacks, such as; damaging the main crops, low performance, being influenced by enviromental changes, high fuel consumption, etc. A two-burner flamer, protected with steal shield was mounted on a self-propelled frame supported with a DC motor to control the speed. Heat was trapped by shield that allowed greater speed. A digital camera was utilized for turning of the flames and saving gas. Field experiments were conducted during May, 10 days after first crop buds were emerged. Various tractor speeds of, 8, 12 and 15 km h-1 were employed. Grasses are harder to control than broad leafed weeds, due to their protected buds, however, system design maximized flames exposure time which resulted in more efficient weed control, especially in grasses. Damage percentages were greater in the slower speed treatments. Compared with proper weeding and highest speed it was found that speeds of 8 to 12 km h-1 would yield an approval result.


Ascard J. 1994. Dose-response model for flame weeding in relation to plant size and density. Weed Research 34, 377-385.
Ascard J. 1995. Effects of flame weeding on weed species at different developmental stages, Weed Research 35, 397-411.
Lague C, GilJ l, Lehoux N, Pel oquin G. 1997. Engineering performances of propane flamers used for weed, insect pest, and plant disease control. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 13: 7-16.
Lampkin N. 1990. Organic Farming, Farming Press Books, Ipswich, UK.
Rahkonen J, Pietikanien J, Jokela H. 1999. The effects of flame weeding on soil microbal biomass. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 16, 363-368.
Rifai M N. 1994. Flame and mechanical cultivation for weeds in Nova Scotia. In: The Technical Workshop of the Atlantic Committee in Agricultural Engineering, Fredericton, New Brunswick
Wszelaki AL, Doohan DJ and Alexandrou A. 2007. Weed control and crop quality in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea (capitata group)) and tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum ) using a propane flamer. Crop Protection 26: 134-144.