Document Type : Original Article


Kazerun Islamic Azad University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kazerun, Iran


Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites by strains of Aspergillus (A.parasiticus and A.flavus) are produced. The clinical signs of aflatoxin poisoning include surgery autopsy, histological lesions and also create effects on the production of poultry flocks in experimental and natural occurrence have been reported in broiler chickens worldwide. The main signs of aflatoxin poisoning, loss of appetite, delayed growth, decreased body weight and food intake are reduced. Aim of this article is Study of performance broiler chickens fed of contaminated wheat by aflatoxin and neutralized by ammonia method. Thus, 280 male broiler chickens of Ross breed were randomly divided into 16 cages and feeding of recommended NRC and All of the experimental diets were same, except of wheat that was considered as fallow: Diet 1(control diet): contains Iranian healthy wheat (no aflatoxin), diet 2: contains ammoniated wheat, diet 3: contains wheat contaminated with aflatoxin (1 ppm) and diet 4: contains ammoniated wheat and contaminated with aflatoxin. According to the results increase in body weight in chickens fed the control diet (without aflatoxin) with ammoniated wheat and contaminated with aflatoxin (diet 4) was not significantly different (p<0.05) but body weight on diets contaminated with aflatoxin (diet 3) was significantly reduced (p<0.05). By the results, feed intake in broilers fed diets 3 (1 ppm  aflatoxin) is lower than other groups (p<0.05).While, not significant differences between diets 2, diets 4 and control diet were observed (p<0.05). Lower feed intake and growth rate due to decreased activity of important enzymes in the digestion of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, and impaired and defects in some of the nutrient. Also The results obtained in this study were showed that aflatoxin in broiler diets due to increase relative kidney weight compared with chicks fed the diet has no aflatoxin (p<0.05). Ammoniate of wheat due to reduction and neutralization aflatoxin in wheat and ammoniated wheat that contaminate with aflatoxin has no effect on the relative weight of kidney (p<0.05).


Baily, R.B., L.F. Kubena., RB. Harvey., S.A. Buckly, & G.E. Rottinghause. 1998. Efficacy of various inorganic sorbents to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 77:1623-1630.
Bakshi, CS., A. Sikdar., T.S. Johri, & M. Malik. 1998. Effect of graded dietary levels of aflatoxin on cell mediated immune response in broilers. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology. Immunology and Infectious Diseases.19(1) 40- 42.
Brekke, O.L., R.O. Sinnhuber, A.J. Pepliski, J.H. Wales, G.B. Putnam, D.J.Lee & A.Ciegler. 1977.
Aflatoxin in corn: Ammonia Inactivation and Bioassay with Rainbow Trout. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Vol.34, No (1):34-37.
Brekke, O.L., R.O. Sinnhuber, A.J. Pepliski, J.H. Wales, G.B. Putnam, D.J.Lee & A.Ciegler. 1977.
Aflatoxin in corn: Ammonia Inactivation and Bioassay with Rainbow Trout. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Vol.34, No(1):34-37.
Devegowda, G., B.I.R. Arvind., K. Rajendra., M.G. Morron., A. Baburathna, & E.udarshan. 1994. A biological approach to counteract aflatoxicosisin broiler chickens and ducklings by the use of Saccharomycess Cerviciea Culture Added to Feed .In:Biotechnology in feed Industry Proceeding of Alletech,s 10th Annual Symposium.(T.P. Lyons and K.A. Jacyues eds). Nottingham University Press. Louhborough. Leies. UK.PP.235-245.
Galvano, F., A. Piva, A. Ritteni, & G. Galvano. 2001. Dietary strategies to counteract the effects of mycotoxins: A review .J. food protection, 64:120-131.
Jones,T.C., Hunt, & N.W .King. 1997. Veterinary Pathology, 6th.ed., Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, USA, pp:539-541.
Ledoux, D.R., G.E. Rottinghaus., A.J. Bermudez & M. Alonso-Debolt. 1999. Efficacy of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the toxic effect of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci, 78:204-210.
Leeson, S., G.J. Diaz, & J.D. Summers. 1995. Poultry Metabolic Disorders and Mycotoxins. University Books. Guelph, Ontario. Canada.
Merkley, J.W. , R. J. Maxwell, J.G. Phillips, & W.E.Huff. 1987. Hepatic fatty profiles in aflatoxinexposed broilers chickens. Poultry science , 66:59-67.
Obido, O. 1986. Aflatoxin inhibition of rat liver mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase activity.
Biochem.Med and Metabol. Biol,35:302-307.
Shotwell, O. L.,Hesseltine.,C.V.,Stubblefleld,R.D, & W.G. Sorenson. 1966. Production of aflatoxin on rice.Applied Microbiology,14:425-429.
Stanley, V.G., R. Ojo., S. Woldesenbet & D.H. hutchinson. 1993. The use of Sacchoromyces cerevisiae to supress the effects of aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci., 72(10) 1867 1872.
Thaxton, J.P., H.T. Tung & P.B. Hamilton. 1974. Immunosuppression In thrombocytes during af1atoxicosis. Poult. Sci.. 58:562-566.
Trucksess, M.W., L. Stoloff., K. Young., R.D. Wyatt & B.L Miller. 1983. Aflatoxicol and aflatoxins B1 and M1 in eggs and tissues of laying hens consuming aflatoxin-contaminated feed. Poult. Sci., 62:2176-2182.
Tung, H.T., W.E. Donaldson & P. B. Hamilton. 1972. Altered lipid transport during aflatoxicosis. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 22:97-104.
Vasan, P., R. Ravi & MR. Purushothaman. 1998. Effect of feeding graded levels of aflatoxin (AFB1) on performance of broiler chicks.Indian. journal.of.Animal.Science.33:2,214-216.