Document Type : Original Article


1 Post graduated of Master of Science of Microbiology, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Falavarjan-Iran

2 Departments of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ShahreKord Branch, Islamic Azad University, ShahreKord-Iran

3 Department of Microbiology, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Falavarjan-Iran

4 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ShahreKord Branch, Islamic Azad University, ShahreKord-Iran


The objective of this study was to isolation and characterization of Listeria species and determines Listeria monocytogenes serotypes in fresh fish, shrimp, crab and lobster in Isfahan and Shahrekord, Iran. From September 2010 to April 2011, a total of 300 samples of fresh fish, shrimp, crab and lobster were obtained from randomly selected retail stores in Isfahan and Shahrekord, Iran. The samples were tested for the presence of Listeria species using a ISO 11290 protocol and then only Listeria monocytogenes isolates identified by bacteriological methods were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for serotypes detection and presences of virulence associated genes. From the total 300 samples, 23 (10.45%) fresh fish and 1 (2.5%) shrimp samples were positive for Listeria spp., but none of the lobster and crab samples were positive for Listeria species. Listeria monocytogenes only isolated from 17 fish (7.25%) and 1 shrimp (2.5%) samples while L. innocua, L. ivanovii and L. seeligeri only detected in fish samples (2 (0.9%), 3 (1.36%) and 1 (0.45%)), respectively. All of 18 isolates of L. monocytogenes showed the characteristic enhancement of hemolytic zone with S. aureus. From these positive L. monocytogenes, 66.66%, 5.55% and 27.77% had 4b, 1/2a and 1/2b serotypes, respectively. Consumption of these sea foods, either raw or undercooked, may contribute to food-borne illness due to L. monocytogenes in Iran. Also, L. monocytogenes in raw seafood may pose a health risk in kitchens if contaminating ready-to-eat food


[1] Alocilja E.C, S.M. Radke, (2003). Market analysis of biosensors for food safety, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 18: 841-846,
[2] Chemburu S, Wilkins E, Abdel-Hamid I. (2005). Detection of pathogenic bacteria in food samples using highly-dispersed carbon particles, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 21,: 491- 499.
[3] Rocourt J, Cossart P (1997). Listeria monocytogenes, In: M. P. Doyle, L. R. Beuchat, T. J. Montville (eds), Food microbiology fundamentals and frontiers. ASM Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 337–352.
[4] Jacquet C, Aubert S, El Solh N, Rocourt J. (1992). Use of rRNA gene restriction patterns for the identification of Listeria species, Systematic and Applied Microbiology, vol. 15, pp.42-46,
[5] Lovett J, Twedt R, Listeria. (1988). Outstanding symposia in food science and technology, Food Technology, 8:188-191.
[6] Ingianni A, Floris M, Palomba P, Madeddu M. A, Quartuccio M, Pompei R. (2001). Rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods, by a combination of PCR and DNA probe, Molecular and Cellular Probes, vol. 15, 275-280.
[7] Rawool D.B, Malik S.V.S, Barbuddhe S.B, Shakuntala I, Aurora R. (2007). A multiplex PCR for detection of virulence associated genes in Listeria monocytogenes, International Journal of Food Safety, 9: 56-62,
[8] Cummins A.J, Fielding A.K, McLauchlin J (1994). Listeria ivanovii infection in a patient with AIDS,” The Journal of Infection, 28: 89-91.
[9] Gasanov U, Hughes D, Hansbro P.M, (2005). Methods for the isolation and identification of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes: a review, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 29:851-875.
[10] Khelef N, Lecuit M, Buchrieser C, Cabanes D, Dussurget O, Cossart P (2006). Listeria monocytogenes and the genus Listeria,” The Prokaryotes, 4: 404-476,
[11] Sasakawa C, (2009). Molecular mechanisms of bacterial infection via the gut,” Current Topics in Microbiology & Immunology, 337: 173-195.
[12] Mead P.S, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig L. F, Bresee J.S, Shapiro C, Griffin P. M, (1999). Food-related illness and death in the United States,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5: 607-625.
[13] Rocourt J, Jacquet C, Reilly A, (2000). Epidemiology of human listeriosis and seafoods,” International Journal Food Microbiology, 62: 197-209.
[14] Rahimi E, Shakerian .A, Raissy M (2012). Prevalence of Listeria species in fresh and frozen fish and shrimp in Iran,” Annals of Microbiology, 62:37-40.
[15] Pagadala S, Parveen S, Rippen T, Luchansky J. B, Call J. E, Tamplin M. L (2012). Prevalence, characterization and sources of Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab (Callinectus sapidus) meat and blue crab processing plants,” Food Microbiology, 31: 263-270.
[16] Ericsson H, Eklöw A, Danielsson-Tham M.L, Loncarevic S, Mentzing L. O, Persson I, (1997). An outbreak of listeriosis suspected to have been caused by rainbow trout, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 35: 2904-2907.
[16] Yildirim S, Lin W, Hitchins A.D, Jaykus L.A, Altermann E, Klaenhammer T. R (2004). Epidemic clone I-specific genetic markers in strains of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b from foods,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, pp. 4158-4164.
[17] Borucki M.K, Call D.R (2003). Listeria monocytogenes serotype identification by PCR,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 41: 5537-5540.
[18] Scotter S.L, Langton S, Lombard B, Schulten N, Nagelkerke P. H, (2001). Validation of ISO method 11290 part 1--detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods, International Journal Food Microbiology, vol. 64: 295-306.
[19] Aygun O, Pehlivanlar S, (2006). Listeria spp. in the raw milk and dairy products in Antakya, Turkey,” Food Control. 17: 676-679.
[20] Leclercq A (2004). Atypical colonial morphology and low recoveries of Listeria monocytogenes strains on Oxford, PALCAM, Rapid'L.mono and ALOA solid media,” Journal of Microbiological Methods. 57: 251-258.
[21] Coffey A, Rombouts F.M, Abee T (1996). Influence of environmental parameters on phosphatidylcholine phospholipase C production in Listeria monocytogenes: a convenient method to differentiate L. monocytogenes from other Listeria species,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62: 1252-1256.
[22] Zhang Y.P, Uyemoto J.K, Kirkpatrick B. C. (1998). A small-scale procedure for extracting nucleic acids from woody plants infected with various phytopathogens for PCR assay,” Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 71: 45-50.
[23] Swetha C.S, Madhava Rao T, Krishnaiah N, Vijaya Kumar A (2012). Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in fish samples by PCR assay,” Annals of Biological Research, vol. 3: 1880-1884.
[24] Bubert A, Hein I, Rauch M, Lehner A, B. W. Yoon, (1999). Detection and differentiation of Listeria spp. by a single reaction based on multiplex PCR,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65: 4688-4692.
[25] Doumith M, Buchrieser C, Glaser P, Jacquet C, Martin P, (2004). Differentiation of the major Listeria monocytogenes serovars by multiplex PCR,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42: 3819-3822.
[26] Liu D, (2006). Identification, subtyping and virulence determination of Listeria monocytogenes, an important foodborne pathogen,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 55: 645-659.
[27] Schlech W. F. 3rd, (2000). Foodborne listeriosis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 31, pp. 770-775.
[28] Laer A.E.V, Lima A.S.D, Trindade P.D.S, Andriguetto C, Destro M. T, (2009). Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a fresh mixed sausage processing line in Pelotas-Rs by PAGE,” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 40, pp. 574-582. .
[29] Farber J. M, (2000). FAO expert consultation on the trade impact of Listeria in fish products,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 62, pp. 171-171,
[30] Laciar A.L, O.N.P. Centorbi (2002). Listeria species in seafood: isolation and characterization of Listeria spp from seafood in San Luis, Argentina,” Food Microbiology, vol. 19, pp. 645-651,.
[31] Akhondzadeh A, Basti A, Misaghi T, Zahraei Salehi A (2006). Bacterial pathogens in fresh, smoked and salted Iranian fish,” Food Control, vol. 17, pp. 183-188.
[32] Zarei M, Maktabi S, Ghorbanpour M, (2012). Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. in seafood products using multiplex polymerase chain reaction,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol. 9, pp. 108-112.
[33] Modaresi R, Mardani K, Tukmechi A, Ownagh A, (2011). Prevalence of Listeria spp. in fish obtained from Urmia fish markets,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 5, pp. 5398-5401.
[34] Ertas H. B, Seker E, (2005). Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes from fish intestines and RAPD analysis,” Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, vol. 29, pp. 1007-1011.
[35] Gudbjörnsdóttir B, Suihko M. L, Gustavsson P, Thorkelsson G, Salo S, (2004). The incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in meat, poultry and seafood plants in the Nordic countries,” Food Microbiology, vol. 21, pp. 217-225.
[36] Souza V.M.D, Alves V.F, Destro M.T, De Martinis E. C. P, (2008). Quantitative evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh and processed surubim fish (Pseudoplatytoma sp),” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 39, pp. 527-528.
[37] Davies A.R, Capell C, Jehanno D, Nychas G. J. E, Kirby R. M, (2001). Incidence of foodborne pathogens on European fish,” Food Control, vol. 12: 67-71.
[38] Miettinen H, Wirtanen G, (2005). Prevalence and location of Listeria monocytogenes in farmed rainbow trout,” International Journal Food Microbiology, vol. 104, pp. 135-143.
[39] Soultos N, Abrahim A, Papageorgiou K, Steris V, (2007). Incidence of Listeria spp in fish and environment of fish markets in Northern Greece,” Food Control, vol. 18: 554-557.
[40] Yücel N, Balci S, (2010). Prevalence of Listeria, Aeromonas, and Vibrio species in fish used for human consumption in Turkey,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 73, pp. 380-384.
[41] Dhanashree B, Otta S. K, Karunasagar I, Goebel W, (2003). Incidence of Listeria spp. in clinical and food samples in Mangalore, India,” Food Microbiology, vol. 20, pp. 447–453.
[42] Jeyasekaran G, Karunasagar I, Karunasagar I, (1996). Incidence of Listeria spp. in tropical fish,” International Journal Food Microbiology, 31: 333-340.
[43] Gilot P, Genicot A, André P, (1996). Serotyping and esterase typing for analysis of Listeria monocytogenes populations recovered from foodstuffs and from human patients with listeriosis in Belgium,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 34: 1007-1010.
[44] Yadav M. M, Roy A, Bhanderi B, (2010). Pheno-genotypic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from bovine clinical mastitis,” Buffalo Bulletin, 29: 29-38.
[45] Wan J, King K, Forsyth S, (2003). Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in salmon using the Probelia polymerase chain reaction system,” Journal of Food Protection, 66: 436-440.
[46] Adzitey F, Huda N, (2010). Listeria monocytogenes in foods: Incidences and possible control measures,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, 4: 2848-2855.