Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of chemistry, College of science, University of Wasit, Iraq

2 Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, College of pharmacy, University of Kerbala, Iraq


Adsorption and water treatment of Ca (II) and Mg (II) hardness were investigated via adsorption of metal ions onto commercial polyacrylic acid hydrogel beads as a novel sorbent for metal ions (Ca2+, Mg2+) removal and water treatment. Batch equilibrium technique was carried out under the influence of solution pH, contact time, sorbent dosage, initial metal concentration and competitive study. The maximum metal ions capacity (Ca2+, Mg2+) values were identified as 171.2 and 193.6, respectively. Sorption equilibrium was established in 24   hr and the data were described by both Langmuir and Freundlich models. The potential application of this sorbent for water treatment and metal ions removal from water samples is successfully accomplished


Main Subjects

Park, J.S., Song, J.H., Yeon, K.H. and Moon, S.H., (2007). Removal of hardness ions from tap water using electromembrane processes. Desalination, 202, pp. 1-8.
Schroeder, H.A., Nason, A.P. and Tipton, I.H., (1969). Essential metals in man: magnesium, J. Chron. Dis. 21, pp. 815-841.
Akyilmaz, E. and Kozgus, O., (2009). Determination of calcium in milk and water samples by using catalase enzyme electrode, Food Chem. 115, pp. 347-351.
Cáceres, E., Garcia, M. L. and Selgas, M. D., (2006). Design of a new cooked metal sausage enriched with calcium, Meat Sci. 73, pp. 368-377.
Yang, C. Y. and Chiu, H.F., (1998). Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from rectal cancer, Int. J. Cancer 77, pp.528-537.
Yang, C. Y., Chiu, H. F., Cheng, B. H., Hsu, T. Y., Cheng, M.F. and Wu, T.N., (2000). Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk of death from breast cancer, J. Environ. Health 60, pp. 231- 245.
Graber, T. W., Yee, A.S. and Baker, F.J., (1981). Magnesium: physiology, clinical disorders and therapy, Annals of Emergency Medicine 10, pp. 49-57.
Kai Zeppenfeld, (2011). Electrochemical removal of calcium and magnesium ions from aqueous solutions, Desalination 277, pp.99-105.
Mary, A. Arugula, Kristen, S. Brastad, Shelley D. Minteer and Zhen He, (2012). Enzyme catalyzed electricity-driven water softening system, Enzyme and Microbial Technology 51, pp.396-401.
Charis, M. Galanakis, Georgios Fountoulis and Vassilis Gekas, (2012). Nanofiltration of brackish groundwater by using a polypiperazine membrane, Desalination 286, pp. 277-284.
N. Kabay, M. Demicioglu, E. Ersöz and I. Kurucaovali, (2002). Removal of calcium and magnesium hardness by electrodialysis, Desalination 149, pp. 343-349.
M. H. Entezari and M. Tahmasbi, (2009). Water softening by combination of ultrasound and ion exchange, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 16, pp. 356-360.
A. J. Abrahamse, C. Lipreau and S. G. J. Heijman, (2008). Removal of divalent cation reduces fouling of ultrafiltration membranes, Journal of Membrane Science 323, pp. 153-158.
Dmitri Muraviev, Joan Noguerol and Manuel Valiente, (1996). Separation and concentration of calcium and magnesium from sea water by carboxylic resins with temperature- influence selectivity, Reactive & Functional Polymers 28, pp. 111-126.
Mutlu Şahin, Hakan Görҫay, Esengül Kir and Yücel Şahin, (2009). Removal of calcium and magnesium using polyaniline and derivative modified PVDF cation-exchange membranes by Donnan dialysia, Reactive & Functional Polymers 69, pp. 673-680.
Ji-Suk Park, Jung-Hoon Song, Kyeong-Ho Yeon and Seung-Hyeon Moon, (2007). Removal of hardness ions from tap water using electromembrane processes, Desalination 202, pp. 1-8.
Yong Yang, Hyoungsup Kim, Andrey Starikovskiy, Alexander Fridman and Young I. Cho, (2010). Application of pulsed spark discharge for calcium carbonate precipitation in hard water, WATER RESEARCH 44, PP. 3659-3668.
Bergman, R.,(1995). Membrane softening versus lime-softening in Florida: a cost comparison update. Desalination 102, pp. 11-24.
Randtke, S. and Hoeha, R., (1999). Removal of DBP precursors by enhanced coagulation and lime softening. Denver, Co: American Water Work Association Research Foundation and American Water Work Association, Available at http://www.water reports /Public Report Library/RFR
90783-1999-814.pdf.[accessibility verified April 30, 2012].
Yarows, S., Fusilier, W. and Wider, A. (1997). Sodium concentration of water from softeners. Archives of Internal Medicine, 157 (2), pp.218-222.
Snakeskin, J. and Gefeniene, A. (2000).Co-sorption of metal cations and nonionic surfactant in polyacrylic acid functionalized cation-exchanger, React Funct. Polym. 46, pp.109-115.
Mouayad. Q. Al- Abachi, Nagam. S. Al- Awady and Ahmed. M. Al-Anbakey, (2013). Evaluation of Poly Acrylic Acid (PAA) Hydrogel Beads as Adsorbent for The Removal of Lead(II)ion from Water. Journal of Al-Nahrain University 16(3), pp. 30-39.
Hasine, Kasgöz and Ahmet, Kasgöz, (2006). Hydrogel with acid groups for removal of Copper (II) and Lead (II) ions, Polymer-Plastic Technology and Engineering 45, pp. 117-124.
Mouayad Q. Al-Abachi, Nagam Shaker Al- Awady and Ahmed. M. Al-Anbakey,( 2013). PhD. Thesis, Study of The Efficiency of Some Metal Ions Entrapment in Crystalline Water Granules Using Different Spectrophotometric Methods, University of Baghdad, Department of Chemistry.
Mouayad Q. Al-Abachi, Nagam S. Al- Awady and Ahmed. M. Al-Anbakey, (2013). Economical Removal of Cu (II) From Aqueous Solution Using Polyacrylic Acid Hydrogel Beads as Adsorbent. Iraq Journal of Science 54(2), pp. 123-131.