Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran

2 Technical and Vocational University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Iran

4 Young Researches Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran


The objectives of this research were to investigate influences of energy inputs and energy forms on output levels and evaluation of CO2 emissions for hazelnut production in Guilan province of Iran. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis was done by marginal physical productivity (MPP) method for energy inputs and energy using linear regression. Initial data were collected from 120 orchardists in September and October 2012. The total energy of 2862.62 MJ ha-1 was calculated for gardening in one year. The results of energy forms analysis revealed the share of non-renewable and indirect energy was more than renewable and direct energy, significantly. The ratio of energy output to energy input was approximately 3.93. Total CO2 emissions of hazelnut production was calculated as 77.66 kgCO2eq. ha-1. Also, the diesel fuel had the highest share of emissions among all inputs with 33.84%. Econometric model estimation indicated that the impact of human labor, machinery, diesel fuel and pesticides energy inputs were significantly positive on hazelnut yield. The sensitivity analysis was presented that the marginal physical productivity (MPP) value of pesticides, farmyard manure and diesel fuel energy were the highest with 9.43 and -4.86 and 0.97, respectively. In energy forms econometric models, impact of direct, indirect and renewable energies were significantly. Furthermore, direct and renewable energies was the most sensitive groups in energy forms with MPP value of 0.98 and 1.19, respectively


USDA. (2004). World Hazelnut Situation and Outlook.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). (2011).
Anonymous. (2013). Annual Agricultural Statistics. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture of Iran., [in Persian].
Dalgaard, T., Halberg, N., & Porter, JR. (2001). A model for fossil energy use in Danish agriculture used to compare organic and conventional farming. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 87(1): 51- 65.
Hillier, J., Walter, C., Malin, D., Garcia-Suarez, T., Mila-i-Canals, L., & Smith, P. (2011). A farmfocused calculator for emissions from crop and livestock production. Environmental Modelling & Software. 26: 1070-1078.
Ozkan, B., Fert, C., & Karadeniz, CF. (2007). Energy and cost analysis for greenhouse and open-field grape production. Energy. 32: 1500-1504.
Mohammadshirazi, A., Akram, A, Rafiee, S., Mousavi-Avval, SH., & Bagheri Kalhor, E. (2012). An analysis of energy use and relation between energy inputs and yield in tangerine production. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16: 4515-4521.
Pishgar-Komleh, S.H., Ghahderijani, M., & Sefeedpari, P. (2012). Energy consumption and CO2 emissions analysis of potato production based on different farm size levels in Iran. Journal of Cleaner Production. 33: 183-191.
Khoshnevisan, B., Rafiee, S., Omid, M., Yousefi, M., & Movahedi, M. (2013). Modeling of energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in wheat production in Esfahan province of Iran using artificial neural networks. Energy. 52: 333-338.
Ghahderijani, M., Pishgar-Komleh, S.H., Keyhani, A., & Sefeedpari, P. (2013). Energy analysis and life cycle assessment of wheat production in Iran. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8(18): 1929-1939.
Nabavi-Pelesaraei, A., Abdi, R., & Rafiee, S. (2013a). Energy use pattern and sensitivity analysis of energy inputs and economical models for peanut production in Iran. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences. 5(19): 2193-2202.
Mobtaker, HG., Keyhani, A., Mohammadi, A., Rafiee, S., & Akram, A. (2010). Sensitivity analysis of energy inputs for barley production. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 137: 367-372.
Abdi, R., Hematian, A., Mobtaker, HG., & Zarei Shahamat, E. (2012). Sensitivity analysis of energy inputs for maize production system in Kermanshah province of Iran. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences. 2(3): 84-90.
Barber, A.A. (2003). Case Study of Total Energy and Carbon Indicators for New Zealand Arable and Outdoor Vegetable Production. Agricultural Engineering Consultant Agril INK. New Zealand Ltd.
Mousavi-Avval, SH., Rafiee, S., Jafari, A., & Mohammadi, A. (2011a). Optimization of energy consumption for soybean production using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. Applied Energy. 88: 3765-3772.
Mobtaker, HG., Akram, A., & Keyhani, A. (2012). Energy use and sensitivity analysis of energy inputs for alfalfa production in Iran. Energy for Sustainable Development. 16: 84-89.
Rafiee, S., Mousavi-Avval, SH., & Mohammadi, A. (2010). Modeling and sensitivity analysis of energy inputs for apple production in Iran. Energy. 35: 3301-3306.
Demircan, V., Ekinci, K., Keener, HM., Akbolat, D., & Ekinci, C. (2006). Energy and economic analysis of sweet cherry production in Turkey: a case study from Isparta province. Energy Conversion and Management. 47: 1761-1769.
Nabavi-Pelesaraei, A., Abdi, R., Rafiee, S., & Mobtaker, HG. (2013b). Optimization of energy required and greenhouse gas emissions analysis for orange producers using data envelopment analysis approach.
Journal of Cleaner Production
Kitani, O. (1999). Energy and biomass engineering. In: CIGR handbook of agricultural engineering. St. Joseph, MI: ASAE.
Singh, S., Singh, S., Pannu, CJS., & Singh, J. (1999). Energy input and yield relations for wheat in different agro-climatic zones of the Punjab. Applied Energy. 63(4): 287-298.
Pishgar-Komleh, S.H., Keyhani, A., Rafiee, S., & Sefeedpari, P. (2011). Energy use and economic analysis of corn silage production under three cultivated area levels in Tehran province of Iran. Energy. 36: 3335-3341.
Mandal, KG., Saha, KP., Gosh, PL., Hati, KM., & Bandyopadhyay, KK. (2002). Bioenergy and economic analyses of soybean-based crop production systems in central India. Biomass Bioenergy. 23: 337-345.
Taki, M., Abdi, R., Akbarpour, M., & Mobtaker, H.G. (2013). Energy inputs-yield relationship and sensitivity analysis for tomato greenhouse production in Iran. Agric Eng Int: CIGR Journal. 15(1): 59- 67.
Singh, H., Mishra, D., & Nahar, N.M. (2002). Energy use pattern in production agriculture of a typical village in arid zone India: part I. Energy Conversion and Management. 43: 2275-2286.
Nabavi-Pelesaraei, A., Shaker-Koohi, S., & Dehpour, MB. (2013c). Modeling and optimization of energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions for eggplant production using artificial neural network and multi-objective genetic algorithm. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical
Research. 1(11): 1478-1489.
Fadavi, R., Keyhani, A., & Mohtasebi, S.S. (2011). An analysis of energy use, input costs and relation between energy inputs and yield of apple orchard. Research in Agricultural Engineering. 57(3): 88-96.
Jalali, A., Ghaffari, H., & Soheilifard, F. (2013). Properties of four local apple varieties from north-west of Iran and bruise damage of them related to drop height. International journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 1(11): 1490-1504.
Saltelli, A., Ratto, M., Andres, T., Campolongo, F., Cariboni, J., Gatelli, D., Saisana, M., & Tarantola, S. (2008). Global Sensitivity Analysis. The Primer, John Wiley & Sons.
Mousavi-Avval, SH., Rafiee, S., Jafari, A., & Mohammadi, A. (2011b). Energy flow modeling and sensitivity analysis of inputs for canola production in Iran. Journal of Cleaner Production. 16: 1464-1470.
Singh, G., Singh, S., & Singh, J. (2004). Optimization of energy inputs for wheat crop in Punjab. Energy Conversion and Management. 45: 453-465.
Royan, M., Khojastehpour, M., Emadi, B., & Mobtaker, H.G. (2012). Investigation of energy inputs for peach production using sensitivity analysis in Iran. Energy Conversion and Management. 64: 441-446.
Mohammadi, A., Rafiee, S., Mohtasebi, SS., Rafiee, H., & Keyhani, A. (2010). Energy inputs - yield relationship and cost analysis of kiwifruit production in Iran. Renewable Energy. 35: 1071-1075.
Samavatean, N., Rafiee, S., Mobli, H., & Mohammadi, A. (2011). An analysis of energy use and relation between energy inputs and yield, costs and income of garlic production in Iran. Renewable Energy. 36: 1808-1813.
Fadai, D. (2007). Utilization of renewable energy sources for power generation in Iran. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 11: 173-181.
Khan, S., Khan, M.A., Hanjra, M.A., & Mu, J. (2009). Pathways to reduce the environmental footprints of water and energy inputs in food production. Food Policy. 34: 141-149.
Canakci, M., Topakci, M., Akinci, I., & Ozmerzi, A. (2005). Energy use pattern of some field crops and vegetable production: case study for Antalya Region, Turkey. Energy Conversion and Management. 46: 655-666.
Tabatabaie, S.M.H., Rafiee, S., Keyhani, A., & Heidari, MD. (2013). Energy use pattern and sensitivity analysis of energy inputs and input costs for pear production in Iran. Renewable Energy. 51: 7-12.
Sheikh Davoodi, M.J., & Houshyar, E. (2009). Energy consumption of canola and sunflower production in Iran. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 6: 381-384.
Pathak, H., & Wassmann, R. (2007). Introducing greenhouse gas mitigation as a development objective in rice-based agriculture: I. Generation of technical coefficients. Agricultural Systems. 94: 807-25.
Khakbazan, M., Mohr, RM., Derksen, DA., Monreal, MA., Grant, CA., Zentner, RP., Moulin, AP., McLaren, DL., Irvine, RB., & Nagy, CN. (2009). Effects of alternative management practices on the economics, energy and GHG emissions of a wheat-pea cropping system in the Canadian praprairies. Soil
& Tillage Research. 104: 30-38.