Document Type : Original Article
1 Dept. Of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
2 Dept. Of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, University of Lorestan, Lorestan, Iran
Objective: Fusarium diseases that cause grain mold and stalk rot of millet are the most important diseases, of these crops in Iran. Fusarium can cause stalk rots, ear rots, and grain mold, resulting in serious production losses in millet, and produce mycotoxins that are harmful to both humans and domesticated animals. Methods: A total of 23 Fusarium isolates were recovered from Foxtail millet collected from different geographic regions of Southern Khorasan provinces in Iran during 2012 - 2014. Fusarium isolates were identified based on the morphological characters. Results: According to morphological features, 9 out of 23 isolates were identified as F. solani, one as F. fujikuroi, three as F. diversisporum., one as F. verticillioides, three as F. semitectum, two as F. equiseti, one as F. crookwellense and three as F. acuminatum. Based on the available references, all Fusarium species that were recovered in this study, are reported from millet for the first time from Iran.
Akanmu A, Abiala M, Odebode A (2013). Pathogenic effect of soilborne Fusarium species on the growth of millet seedlings. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9 (1):60-68.
Belton PS, Taylor J (2004). Sorghum and millets: protein sources for Africa. Trends in Food Science & Technology 15 (2):94-98. Bor N (1970). Gramineae.- In: Rechinger, KH. Flora iranica 70573.
Burgess L, Nelson P, Toussoun T (1982).
Characterization, geographic distribution and ecology of Fusarium crookwellense sp. nov. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 79 (3):497-505.
Burgess LW, Gardens RB (1994). Laboratory manual for Fusarium research. Fusarium Research Laboratory, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Sydney.133pp.
Burgess LW, Liddell CM, Summerell BA (1988). Laboratory manual for Fusarium research: incorporating a key and descriptions of common species found in Australasia.156 pp.
Burgess LW, Trimboli D (1986). Characterization and distribution of Fusarium nygamai, sp. nov Mycologia 78223-229.
Chehri K, Darvishnia M, Zafari D (2010). Six new Fusarium species isolated from maize in Iran. Rostaniha 1169-81.
Darvishnia M, Alizadeh A, Zare R (2010). Three new Fusarium taxa isolated from gramineous plants in Iran. Rostaniha 1155-67.
Desjardins AE (2006). Fusarium mycotoxins : chemistry, genetics and biology. APS Press, St. Paul, Minn.260 pp.
Ellis JB, Everhart BM (1895). New species of fungi from various localities. Paper presented at the the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia,
Ershad D (2009). Fungi of Iran. Fungi of Iran. Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Iran.531 pp.
Fisher N, Burgess L, Toussoun T, Nelson P (1982). Carnation leaves as a substrate and for preserving cultures of Fusarium species [Dianthus caryophyllus]. Phytopathology 72-151.
Gerlach W, Nirenberg H (1982). The genus Fusarium--a pictorial atlas(Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land-und Forstwirtschaft BerlinDahlem). Vol 209. Kommissionsverlag P. Parey, Germany.406 pp.
Hammer K, Heller J, Engels J (2001). Monographs on underutilized and neglected crops. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 48 (1):3-5.
Hammer K, Khoshbakht K (2007). Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) in Mazandaran/Northern Iran. Genet Resour Crop Evol 54 (4). doi:10.1007/s10722-007-9211-z
Leslie JF (2003). Sorghum and millets diseases. WileyBlackwell.504 pp. Leslie JF, Summerell BA (2006). The Fusarium laboratory manual. 1st edn. Blackwell Pub., Ames, Iowa.388 pp.
Marasas W, Rabie C, Lübben A, Nelson PE, Toussoun T, Van Wyk P (1987). Fusarium napiforme, a new species from millet and sorghum in southern Africa. Mycologia79 (6):910-914.
Mohammadi A, Mofrad N (2010). Investigation on genetic diversity of Fusarium verticillioides isolated from corn using vegetative compatibility groups and relation of VCGs to the pathogenicity. Journal of Agricultural
Technology 6 (3):497-502.
Mohammadi A, Nejad RF, Mofrad NN (2012). Fusarium verticillioides from sugarcane, vegetative compatibility groups and pathogenicity. Plant Protection Science 48(3):80-84.
Nash SM, Snyder WC (1962). Quantitative estimations by plate counts of propagules of the bean root rot Fusarium in field soils. Phytopathology 52 (6):567-572.
Nelson PE, Toussoun TA, Cook RJ (1982). Fusarium : diseases, biology, and taxonomy. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.560 pp.
Nelson PE, Toussoun TA, Marasas WFO (1983). Fusarium species : an illustrated manual for identification. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.226pp.
Nirenberg HI, O’Donnell K (1998). New Fusarium species and combinations within the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Mycologia 90434-458.
Onyike NB, Nelson PE, Marasas W (1991). Fusarium species associated with millet grain from Nigeria, Lesotho, and Zimbabwe. Mycologia 83708-712.
Padasht F, Hedjarud GA, Elahinia SA (eds) ( 1995) Introduction of fungal agents of rice sheath rot disease in Guilan. Karaj,Iran
Saleh AA, Esele J, Logrieco A, Ritieni A, Leslie JF (2012). Fusarium verticillioides from finger millet in Uganda. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A 29 (11):1762-1769.
Scholz H (1981). Erga¨nzungen und Verbesserungen zur‘‘Flora iranica’’: Gramineae. Willdenowia 11259-265.
Sun S, Snyder W (1981). The bakanae disease of the rice plant. In:Nelson PE, Dignani MC, Anaissie EJ (eds) Fusarium: diseases, biology and taxonomy. The
Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park,104-113
Vafaei S, Farokhinejad R, Darvishnia M (2001). Fusarium
species isolated from root and crown of wheat & barley in khuzestan province. The Scientific Journal of Agriculture 24101-126.