Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran

2 Department of biology, Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Damgha, Iran


Objective: In order to study the effect of drought stress, salicylic acid (SA) and  jasmonic acid (JA) foliar application on Hill reaction and photosynthetic pigments. Methods:Experiment was done as factorial on the basis of completely randomized design in 4 replications. Irrigation in 3 levels (FC,   FC and  FC), salicylic acid in 2 levels (0 and 0.5 mM) and jasmonic acid in 2 levels (0 and 50 µM). Results: The results indicated that, the effects drought stress, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid on Hill reaction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b, β-carotene and Xanthophyll were significant. Drough stress increased the content of β-carotene (1.83  ) and Xanthophyll (2.60 ). The 50 (µM) foliar application of jasmonate  and salicylic acid under normal irrigation condition gained to maximum amounts of Hill reaction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b, β-carotene and xanthophyll.  According to the results, exogenous salicylic acid and jasmonic acid application can improve drought tolerance in moldavian dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.).


Main Subjects

Abdala, G., O. Miersch, R ,Kramell, A.Vigliocco, E. Agostini, G. Forchetti and S. Alemano, 2003. Jasmonate and octadecanoid occurrence in tomato hairy roots. Endogenous level changes in response to NaCl. Plant Growth Regulation 40: 21-27.
Asadi Kavan Zh., M. Ghorbanli and A. Sateei, 2010, The effect of drought stress and exogenous ascorbate on photosynthetic pigments, flavonoids, phenol compounds and lipid peroxidation in Pimpinella anisum L. Iranian
Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Vol. 25, No. 4, 2010
Babst, B.A., R.A. Ferrieri, D.W. Gray, M. Lerdau, D.J. Schlyer, M. Schueller, M.R. Thrope, and C.M. Orians, 2005. Jasmonic acid induces rapid changes in carbon transport and partitioning in Populus. New phytologist
167: 63-72.
Belkhadi, A., H. Hediji, Z. Abbes, I. Nouairi, Z. Barhoumi, M. Zarrouk, W. Chaibi and W. Djebali. 2010. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid pre-treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid content in Linum usitatissimum L..
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 1-8. 

Costa, M., P.M. Civell, A.R. Chaves and G.A. Martinez. 2005.
Effects of ethephon and 6-benzylaminopurine on chlorophyll degrading enzymes and a peroxidase-linked chlorophyll bleaching during post-harvest senescence of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) at 20°C. Post harvest
Biology and Technology 35: 191-199.
Czerpak, R., A., Piotrowska and K. Szulecka. 2006. Jasmonic acid affects changes in the growth and some components content in alga Chlorella vulgaris. Acta Physiologia Plantarum 28: 195-203.
eyaramraja, P.R., S.N. Meenakshi, R.S. Kumar, S.D. Joshi and B. Ramasubramanian. 2005. Water deficit induced oxidative damage in tea (Camelia sinensis) plants. Journal of Plant Physiology, 162: 413-419.
Foyer, C.H., H. Lopez-Delgado, J.F. Dat and I.M. Scott. 1994. Hydrogen peroxide and glutathione-associated mechanisms of acclamatory stress tolerance and signaling.Physiologia Plantarum 100:241-254.
Ganji Arjenaki, F., R. Jabbari, A. Morshedi. 2012. Evaluation of drought dtress on relative water content, chlorophyll content and mineral elements of wheat
(Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties. Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences.729-726.
Hayat, S., S.A .Hasan, Q. Fariduddin, and A. Ahmad, 2010. Growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in response to salicylic acid under water stress. J Plant Interact 3:297ñ304
Jagtap, V. and S. Bhargava, 1995. Variation in the antioxidant metabolism of drought tolerant and drought susceptible varieties of Sorghum bicolor to high light, low water and high temperature stress.
Journal of Plant Physiology, 145: 195-197.
Jensen, A. 1978. Chlorophylls and carotenoids . In handbook of phycological methods: Physiological and Biochemical Methods (Hellebust, J.A. and J.S. Craigie, editors), Cambridge university Press. Cambridge, pp:59-70.
Jung, S. 2004. Effect of chlorophyll reduction in Arabidopsis thaliana by methyl jasmonate or norflurazon on antioxidant systems. Journal of Plant
physiology and Biochemistry 42: 231-255.
Kadioglu, A., N. Saruhan, A. Saðlam, R. Terzi, and T. Acet, 2011. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates effects of long term drought stress and delays leaf rolling by inducing antioxidant system. Plant Growth Regul 64:27ñ37
Kadioglu, A., N. Saruhan, A. Saðlam, R. Terzi and T. Acet.2011. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates effects of long term drought stress and delays leaf rolling by inducing antioxidant system. Plant Growth Regul 64:27ñ 37
Khan, M.I.R., S. Syeed, R. Nazar, and N.A. Anjum, 2012 An insight into the role of salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in salt stress tolerance. In: Khan NA, Nazar R,
Iqbal N, Anjum NA (eds) Phytohormones and abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Springer, New York. pp.277ñ 300.
Kuzmaa, U., E. Bruchajzerb and H. Wysokinskaa, 2009. Methyl jasmonate effect on diterpenoid accumulation in Salvia sclarea hairy root culture in shake flasks and sprinkle bioreactor. Enzyme and Microbial Technology.
44: 406ñ410.
Lawlor, D. W. 2002, Limitation of photosynthesis in water-stressed leaves: Stomata Vs. metabolism and the role of ATP. Annals of Botany 89: 871-885.
Lawlor, D.W., and G. Cornic. 2002. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation and associated metabolism in relation to water deficits in higher plants. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25: 275-294.
Lessani, H. and M. Mojtahedi. 2002. Introduction to Plant Physiology (Translation). 6th Edn., Tehran University press, Iran, ISBN: 964-03-3568-1, pp: 726.
Lichtenthaler, H. K. 1987. Chlorophyl and caretenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Method in Enzymology 148: 350-382.
Loggini, B., A. Scartazza, E. Brugnoli and F. Navari-Izzo. 1999. Antioxidative defense system pigment composition and photosynthetic efficiency in two wheat cultivars subjected to drought. Plant Physiology, 119: 1019-1099.
Mahabub, A.M.d., M. Hasanuzzaman, K. Nahar and M. Fujita, 2013, Exogenous salicylic acid ameliorates shortterm drought stress in mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings by up-regulating the antioxidant defense and
glyoxalase system, Australian Journal of crop Sciene. 7
(7): 1053-1063.
Muller-Moule, P., P.L. Conklin and K.K. Niyogi. 2002. Ascorbate deficiency can limit Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase activity in vivo. Plant Physiology,128:970-977
piotrowska, A., A. Bajguz, B. Godlewska-Zylkiewicz and
R. Czerpak. 2009. Jasmonic acid modulator of lead toxicity in aquatic plant Wolffia arrhiza (Lemnaceae).Environmental and Experimental Botany
Popova, L.P., E. Ananieva, V. Hristova, K. Christov, K. Georgieva, V. Alexieva and Z.H. Stoinova. 2003. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate induced protection on photosynthesis to paraquat oxidative stress. Bulg Journal
of Plant Physiology, 133-152.
Said ñAl Ahl, H.A. H. and M.A.A. Abdou, 2010. Impact of water stress and phosphorus fertilizer on fresh herb and essential oil content of dragonhead . I.. A. , 23,403-407.
Sairam, R.K., P.S. Deshmukh and D.C. Saxena. 2008. Role of antioxidant systems in wheat. Genotype tolerance to water stress. Biologia Plantarum, 43(3): 387-394.
Sunka, R., D. Bartels and H.H. Kirch, 2003. Over expression of a stress inducible dehydrogenae gene from Arabidopsis thaliana in transgenic plants improves stress tolerance . P.P.34,12-18.
Trebst, A. 2000. Measurement of the Hill reaction and photoreduction. Methods Enzymol. 24: 146-165
Ueda, J. and M. Saniewski. 2006. Methyl jasmonateñ induced Stimulation of chlorophyll formation in the
basal part of tulip bulbs kept under natural light conditions. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Reserch 14: 199-210.
Van Wees, S.C.M., E.A.M. de Swart, J.A. Pelt, Loon LC and C.M.J. Pieterse, 2000. Enhancement of induced disease resistance by simultaneous activation of salicylate -and jasmonate-dependent defense pathways in Arabidopsis
thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 97: 8711ñ8716.
Weidhase, R., H.M. Kramell, J. Lehmann, H.W. Liebisch, W. Lerbs, and B. Parthier, 2007. Methyl jasmonate-induced changes in the polypeptide pattern
of senescing barley leaf segments. Plant Science 51: 177-186.
Wise, R.R. and A.W. Naylor. 2007. Chilling-enhanced photo-oxidation. The oxidative destruction of lipids during chilling injury to photosynthesis and
ultrastructure. Plant Physiology, 83: 278-282.
Yadav S.K., S.L. Singla-Pareek, M. Ray, M.K. Reddy, S.K. Sopory. 2003. Methylglyoxal levels in plants under salinity stress are dependent on glyoxalase I and glutathione. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 337:61ñ67
Yu, K.W., W. Gao, E.J. Hahn and K.Y. Paek. 2002. Jasmonic acid improves ginsenoside accumulation in adventitious root culture of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer . Biochemical Engineering Journal 11: 211ñ5.