Document Type: Original Article


Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Wondo Genet Agriculture Research Center P.O.Box 198 Shashemene Ethiopia



A field experiment was conducted at wondo genet Agriculture research center under irrigated condition to determine the effect of intra and inter-row spacing on growth and yield of Artemisia (Artemisia annua L.) during the two successive seasons of 2013 and 2014. Factorial combinations of four intra-rows (40, 60, 80, 100 cm) and four inter-row plant spacing’s (60, 80, 100, 120 cm) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Interaction effect of the two factors brought about significant variation on above ground biomass, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight and Essential oil yield. However, plant height, number of primary branch per plant and essential oil content were not influenced by the interaction effect. In this study, the maximum above ground biomass 72605 kg/ha, leaf fresh weight 9510 kg/ha, leaf dry weight 5392.7 kg/ha and Essential oil yield 23.39 kg/ha were attained due to spacing combination  40cm intra-row and 60cm inter-row spacing's. Therefore, it could be concluded that Artemisia annua could be planted at optimum spacing of 40 x 60 cm in Wondo genet area to attain maximum yield.


Main Subjects

Abebe, T., 2007. Effect of plant spacing on the yield and yield related traits of Vernonia galamensis. Agronomy thesis, Alamaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia, 70.
Al-Ramamenh, E.A., 2009. Plant growth strategies of thymus vulgaris L. in response to population density. Industrial Crops and Products, 30, 389-394.
Beemnet, M.K., Solomon, A., Texeria, D.S., 2011. Agronomic characters, Leaf and Essential Oil yield of peppermint (Mentha PIperiata l.) as influenced by harvesting age and row spacing. Med. Arom. Plant. Sci. Biotechnol.,
5(1), 49-53
Board, J.E., Harville, B.G., Saxton, A.M., 1990. Narrow-row seed-yield enhancement in determinate soybean. Agron. J., 82, 64-68.
Charles, D.J., Simon, J.E., Wood, K.V., Heinstein, P., 1990. Germplasm variation in artemisinin content of Artemisia annua L. using an alternative method of artemisinin analysis from crude extracts. J. Nat. Prod., 53, 157-160.
Delabays, N., Darbellay, C., Galland, N., 2002. Variation and heritability of artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L. Current. Med. Chem., 9, 1522-1521.
Diemer, P., Griffee, P., 2005. Artemisia annua; the plant, production and processing and medicinal applications,392.
Ferreira, J.F.S., Janick, J., 2002. Production of artemisinin from in vitro cultures of Artemisia annua L. Biotechnol. Agr. Forest., 51, 1-12.
Hirt, H.M., Lindsey, K., 2000. Natural medicine in the tropics: experiences, Winnenden, Germany, 20-23.
Khazaie, H.R., Nadjafi, F., Bannayan, M., 2007. Effect of irrigation frequency and planting density on harbage biomass and oil production of thyme(Thymus vulgaris) and hyssop(Hyssopus officinalis). Indust. Crop. Prod., 27, 315-321.
Laughlin, J.C., Heazlewood, G.N., Beattie, B.M., 2002. Cultivation of Artenisia annua L. C.W. Wright, (ed), 159-190.
Muzemil, A., 2008. Determination of Artemisinin and essential oil contents of Artemisiaannua L. grown in Ethiopia and In vivo Anti-malarial activity of its crude extracts against Plasmodium berghei in mice. Medicinal Chemistry Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 53 .
Najafi, F., Moghadam, P.R., 2002. Effect of irrigation regimes and plant density on yield and agronomic characteristics of blond psyllium (Plantago ovata). J. Agr. Sci. Technol., 16, 59-65.
Nekonam, M.S., Razamjoo, K.H., 2007. Effect of plant density on yield, Yield components and Effective medicinal ingredients of Blod Psyllium (Plantago ovata F.). J. Agr. Biol., 9(4), 607-609.
Rao, B.R., 2002. Biomass yield, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of rosescented geranium (Pelargonium species) as influenced by row spacings and inter cropping with corn mint (Mentha arvensis L. f. piperascens Malinv. Ex Holmes). Ind. Crop. Prod., 16, 133-144.
Saeed, M., Siddiqui, N.A., Maqsood, M., Mahmood, T., 1996. Effect of nitrogen and plant spacing on growth, green fodder yield and quality of Mott elephantgrass. J. Sci., 39, 54-59.
Simon, J.E., Charles, D., Cebert, E., Grant, L., Janick, J., Whipkey, A., 1990. Artemisia annua L: a promising aromatic and medicinal. In: J. Janick and J.E., Simon (eds.) Advances in New Crops. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon,
USA. 522-526.
Singh, Lai, 2004. Artemisinin induces apoptosis in human cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 24, 2277-2280.
Singh, N.P., Singh, R.A., 2002. Scientific crop production, X press Graphics, Delhi-28, 1 st ed., India.
WHO (World Health Organization), 2004. Facts on ACTs (artemisinin based combination therapies). Geneva,Switzerland, 24-31.
Wilairatana, P.S., Krudsood, S., Treeprasertsuk, K., Chalermrut, Looareesuwan, S., 2002. The future outlook of antimalarial drugs and recent work on the treatment of malaria. Med. Res., 33, 416-421.
Wright, C.W., 2002. Artemisia, the Journal of the American Botanical Council. 57, 1- 65.
Yasin, M., Malik, M.A., Nazir, M.S., 2003. Plant spacing cum Nitrogen Management effect on forage yield of Mott Elephantgrass. J. Agron., 2(1), 13-19.
Zaffaroni, E., Schneiter, A.A., 1991. Sunflower production as influenced by plant type, plant population, and row arrangement. Agron. J., 83, 113-118.
Zewdinesh, D., Bizuayehu, T., Daniel, 2011. Leaf, essential oil and Artemisinin yield of Artemisia (Artemisia annua L.) as influenced by harvesting age and plant population density. World. J. Agr. Sci., 7(4), 404-412.
Zewdinesh, D.Z., 2010. Cultivation of Artemisia (Artemisia annuaL.) in Ethiopia: Cultural Practice and Chemistry, VDM Publishing House Ltd., Germany.