Document Type: Case Report


1 Post Graduate Students of Agricultural Education, Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources university, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Assistance Professor of Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources university, Ahvaz, Iran

4 Post Graduate Student of Agricultural Biotechnology, Azad University, Tehran, Iran



The purpose of this study was to identify factors that effecting on wood and papers student’s entrepreneurial spirit. Statistical population of this research consisted of whole wood and paper students in college of agricultural and natural of Tehran University (N= 263). A stratified random sampling method was used to select 100 students applying Morgan’s table. The main tool to collect data was a researcher made questionnaire that Content validity of the questionnaire was approved, by a panel of experts and Exploratory factor analysis and its reliability, was confirmed by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α= 0.71- 0.79). Data was analyzed by SPSSWin20 software. Results of factor analysis showed that four factors: curriculum content, psychological, teaching method and management explained 60.87 percent of the variance of students’ entrepreneurial spirit.


Ajzen, I., 1991. Attitudes, traits, and actions: dispositional prediction of behavior in personality and social psychology. In: Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Academic Press, Inc., San
Diego, CA, 20, 1–63.
Aldrich, Howard, E., Martinez, Martha, A., 2001. May are called, but reward chosen an evolutionary perspective for the study of entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 25(4), 41-61.
Altinay, L., Madanoglu, M., Daniele, R., Lashley, C., 2012. The influence of family tradition and psychological traits on entrepreneurial intention. Int. J. Hosp. Manag., 31(2), 489-499.
Baum, J.R., Frese, M., Baron, R.A., Katz, J.A., 2007. Entrepreneurship as an area of sychological study: an introduction. In: Baum, J.R., Frese, M., Baron, R.A. (Eds.), The Psychology of Entrepreneurship. Lawrence Earlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 1–18.
Davidsson, P., Wiklund, J., 2001. Levels of analysis in entrepreneurship re-search: current research practice and suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(4), 81–100.
Fraser, S., Greene, F.J., 2006. The effects of experience on entrepreneurial optimism and uncertainty. Economica, 73(290), 169-192.
Gurel, E., Altinay, L., Daniele, R., 2010. Tourism students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Ann. Tourism. Res., 37(3), 646-669.
Hayton, J.C., George, G., Zahra, S.A., 2002. National culture and entrepreneurship: A review of behavioral research. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 26(4), 33-52.
Hitt, M.A., Beamish, P.W., Jackson, S.E., Mathieu, J.E., 2007. Building theoretical and empirical bridges across levels: multilevel research in management. Acad. Manag. J., 50(6), 1385–1399.
Koh, H.C., 1996. Testing hypotheses of entrepreneurial characteristics: A study of Hong Kong MBA students. J. Manag. Psychol., 11(3), 12-25.
Kuckertz, A., Wagner, M., 2010. The influence of sustainability orientation on ntrepreneurial intentions — investigating the role of business experience. J. Bus. Ventur., 25, 524–539.
Mitchell, R.K., Busenitz, L., Lant, T., McDougall, P.P., Morse, E.A., Smith, J., 2002. Toward a theory of entrepreneurial cognition: rethinking the people side of entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory
and Practice, 27, 93–104.
Morrison, A., 2000. Entrepreneurship: what triggers it? Int. J. Entrepr. Behav. Res., 6(2), 59-71.
Mueller, S.L., Thomas, A.S., 2001. Culture and entrepreneurial potential: A nine country study of locus of control and innovativeness. J. Bus. Ventur., 16(1), 51-75.
Nurmi, P., Paasio, K., 2007. Entrepreneurship in Finnish universities. Education+ Training, 49(1), 56-65.
Rauch, A., Frese, M., 2007. Born to be an entrepreneur? Revisiting the personality approach to entrepreneurship.
Robinson, P.B., Stimpson, D.V., Huefner, J.C., Hunt, H.K., 1991. An attitude approach to the prediction of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 15(4), 13-31.
Salimath, M.S., Cullen, J.B., 2010. Formal and informal institutional effects on entrepreneurship: a synthesis of nation-level research. Int. J. Organ. Analys., 18(3), 358-385.