Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Islamic Azad University of center Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Islamic Azad University of Center Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Islamic Azad University of Arak , Arak, Iran



Introduction: Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder that affects many people each year. Many people suffer from diabetes and obesity. The effects of renoprotective vitamin D and its analogues in chronic kidney diseases, including diabetic nephropathy, have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the rs731236 and rs2228570 polymorphisms of vitamin D receptor gene (GDR) in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Material & Method: In this case-control study, 120 patients with type 2 diabetes and 120 healthy controls (control group) referred to Amiralmomenin Arak Hospital were investigated. After collecting clinical data and performing Laboratory tests, DNA samples were extracted from blood samples by phenol chloroform method, and polymorphisms in specimens were examined by specific genotypes. Data were analyzed by SPSS22 software.
Results: There was no correlation between Taq1 and Fok1 polymorphisms with both healthy and healthy patients. Although the frequency of CT genotype was higher in both groups, this difference was not significant (P-Value > 0.05).
Conclusion: No evidence was found that VDR gene polymorphisms play a role in the risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity in Iranian subjects. Further studies in prospective cohort studies should be performed to determine the genome-wide association to evaluate the direct effect of these polymorphisms on type 2 diabetes.


Al-Daghri, NM, Al-Attas, OS, Alkharfy, KM, Khan, N, Mohammed, AK, Vinodson, B, Ansari, MG, Alenad, A, Alokail, MS. (2014). Association of VDR-gene variants with factors related to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and vitamin D deficiency, Gene., 542(2):129-133.

Arababadi, MK, Reza Mirzaei, M, Ali Sajadi, SM, Hassanshahi, G, Ahmadabadi, BN, Salehabadi, VA, Derakhshan, R, Kennedy, D. (2012). Interleukin (IL)-10 gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes with and without nephropathy: a study of patients from the southeast region of Iran, Inflammation., 35(3):797-802.

Bid, HK, Konwar, R, Aggarwal, CG, Gautam, S, Saxena, M, Nayak, VL, Banerjee, M. (2009). Vitamin D receptor (FokI, BsmI and TaqI) gene polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a North Indian study, Indian J. Med. Sci., 63(5):187-194.

Carey, WB, Crocker, AC, Elias, ER, Feldman, HM, Coleman, WL. (2009). Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Deng, HW, Shen, H, Xu, FH, Deng, HY, Conway, T, Zhang, HT, Recker, RR. (2002). Tests of linkage and/or association of genes for vitamin D receptor, osteocalcin, and parathyroid hormone with bone mineral density, J. Bone. Miner. Res., 17(4):678-686.

Dilmec, F, Uzer, E, Akkafa, F, Kose, E, van Kuilenburg, AB. (2010). Detection of VDR gene ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using PCR-RFLP method in a Turkish population, J. Diabetes Complicat., 24(3):186-191.

Hamman, RF. (1992). Genetic and environmental determinants of non‐insulin‐dependent. diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), Diabetes Metab. Rev., 8(4):287-338.

Kittles, RA, Weiss, KM. (2003). Race, ancestry, and genes: implications for defining disease risk, Annu. Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet., 4(1):33-67.

Maia, J, da Silva, AS, do Carmo, RF, de Mendonça, TF, Griz, LH, Moura, P, Bandeira, F. (2016). The association between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms (TaqI and FokI), Type 2 diabetes, and micro-/macrovascular complications in postmenopausal women, Appl. Clin. Genet., 9:131-136.

Malecki, MT, Frey, J, Moczulski, D, Klupa, T, Kozek, E, Sieradzki, J. (2003). Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Polish population, Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes., 111(8):505-509.

Martini, LA, Wood, RJ. (2006). Vitamin D status and the metabolic syndrome, Nutr Rev., 64(11):479-486.

Nosratabadi, R, Arababadi, MK, Salehabad, VA. (2011). Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes in southeastern Iranian patients, Laboratory Med., 42(1):32-34.

Palomer, X, González-Clemente, JM, Blanco-Vaca, F, Mauricio, D. (2008). Role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, Diabetes Obes. Metab., 10(3):185-197.

Ramos-Lopez, E, Jansen, T, Ivaskevicius, V, Kahles, H, Klepzig, C, Oldenburg, J, Badenhoop, K. (2006). Protection from type 1 diabetes by vitamin D receptor haplotypes, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1079(1):327-334.

Reis, AF, Hauache, OM, Velho, G. (2005). Vitamin D endocrine system and the genetic susceptibility to diabetes, obesity and vascular disease. A review of evidence, Diabetes Metab., 31(4):318-325.

Shab-Bidar, S, Neyestani, TR, Djazayery, A. (2011). Efficacy of vitamin D3-fortified-yogurt drink on anthropometric, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers according to vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetic patients: a study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial, BMC Endocr. Disord., 11(1):12.

Simmons RA. (2007). Role of metabolic programming in the pathogenesis of β-cell failure in postnatal life, Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord., 8(2):95-104.

Turpeinen, H, Hermann, R, Vaara, S, Laine, AP, Simell, O, Knip, M, Veijola, R, Ilonen, J. (2003). Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms: no association with type 1 diabetes in the Finnish population, Eur. J. Endocrinol., 149(6):591-596.

Uitterlinden, AG, Fang, Y, Van Meurs, JB, Pols, HA, Van Leeuwen, JP. (2004). Genetics and biology of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, Gene., 338(2):143-156.

Valdivielso, JM, Fernandez, E. (2006). Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and diseases, Clin. Chim. Acta., 371(1-2):1-12.