Using Simulated Annealing (SA), Evolutionary Algorithm To Determine Optimal Dimensions of Clay Core in Earth Dams

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Water Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O.BOX 76169133, Kerman, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran


Earth dam is a structure as homogeneous or non-homogeneous forms for raising water level or water supply. Earth dam consist of different parts that one of the main parts is clay core. Choosing an optimal non permeable core which causes reduction of seepage through dam body and also being stable is necessary. The objective of this research is to optimize the geometry of earth dam clay core such that, beside of reduction of seepage through dam body, the volume of core material is minimized. For access of this objective a consolidated model consist of a simple model which obtained by linear regression and SA algorithm were used, to optimize the Birjand Hesar Sangi dam. Optimal parameters such as seepage through dam body, hydraulic gradient and safety factor of stability access from model compared by the values access from the direct run of the software modeling that show a good agreement. Also the result of access by modeling have been compared by actual dimensions of Birjand Hesar Sangi dam, that cause reduction of material volume for construction core dam and shell dam about 21 and 8 percent, respectively. Result show that the consolidated model has successful operations and a general optimal plan design of clay core dimensions in stable condition can be achieved.


Abdul Hussain, I., Deepak Kashyap, A. and Hari Prasad. K. S. (2007). Seepage Modeling Assisted Optimal Design of a Homogeneous Earth Dam: Procedure Evolution. Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 133(2), 116-130.

Akyuz, A. and Merdun, H. (2003). Seepage through an Earth Dam on Impervious Base with Hele-Shaw Viscous Liquid Physical Model. EJGE.

Aniruddha, S. and Anup, U.,( 2009). Locating the Critical Failure Surface in a Slope Stability by Genetic Algorithm. Applied Soft  Computing. 9(1), 387-392.

Aubertin, M., Bussière, B., Aachib, M., Chapuis, R.P., and Crespo, R., (1996).Unemodélisation numériquedes  écoulements non saturésdans les couverture smulti couches en sols. Hydrogéologie. 96(1), 3–13.

Benmebarek, N., Benmebarek, S. and Kastner, R., (2005). Numerical Studies of Seepage Failure of Sand within a Cofferdam. Computers and Geotechnics. 32(4), 264-273.

Boger, M.,(1998). Three-Dimensional Analytical Solutions for Unsaturated Seepage Problem. Hydrologic Engineering, ASCE. 3(3), 193-202.

Ersayin, D., (2006). studying  seepage in a body of earth fill dam by (Artificial Neural Networks)ANNs. M.Sc. Thesis, College of Engineering, izmir Institute of Technology.

Galuber, R. J., (1963). Time dependent statistics of the using model. Mathematical Physics.

Goldin, A. L. and Rasskazove, L. N.,(1992). Design of earth dams, A.A.Balkema, Netherlands.

Griffiths, D. V., and Fenton, G. A., (1997). Three-Dimensional Seepage through Spatially Random Soil. Geotechnical and Geo environmental Engineering, ASCE, 123(2), 153-160.

Hadi, A. A., (1978). Seepage through Embankments into Adjacent Drains. M.Sc. Thesis, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq.

Harr, M. E., (1962). Groundwater and Seepage. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Hillo, A. N.,(1993). Finite Elements for Seepage below Hydraulic Structure on Anisotropic Soil Foundation. M.Sc. Thesis, College of Engineering, University of Basrah, Iraq.

Hitoshi, F., Hideaki, H., Eiichi,  W., Taro,  T. and  Hiroyuki, M.,(1996). Application of Genetic Algorithm to Aesthetic Design of Dam Structures.  Advances in Engineering software. 25(2-3), 185-195.

Holland, J.H.,(1975). Adaptation in natural and artificial systems. Ann Arbor :University of Michigan Press.

Irzooki, R. H.,(1998). Investigation and Analysis of Seepage Problems on the Left Side of Al-Qadisiya Dam. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Building and Construction Eng., College of Engineering, University of Technology, Iraq.

Ishaq, M. B.,(1989). Effect of Anisotropy on Exit Gradient in Hydraulic Structures. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, University of Baghdad, (cited by Khsaf, 1998).

James, L.B., (1968). Failure of Baldwin Hill reservoir, Los Angeles, California. Engineering Geology Case Histories, Division of Engineering Geology. Geological Society of America. (6), 1-11.

Khsaf, S. I., (1998). Numerical Analysis of Seepage Problems with Flow Control Devices underneath Hydraulic Structures. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Building and Construction Eng., College of Engineering, University of Technology, Iraq.

Kirkpatrick, S.,  Gelatt, C., D Jr and Vecchi, M. P., (1983). Optimization by Simulated Annealing. Science. 220(4598), 671-680.

Metropolis, N., Rosenbluth, A., Rosenbluth, M., Teller, A., and Teller, E.,(1953). Equations of state calculations by fast computing machines. Chemical Physics. 21(6).

Nazari Giglou, A. and Zeraatparvar, A., (2012). Seepage Estimation through Earth Dams. Basic and Applied Scientific Research. 2(8), 7861-7865.

Oglivy, A.A., Ayed, M.A., and Bogoslovsky, V.A., (1969). Geophysical studies for water leakages from reservoirs. Geophysical Prospecting. (17), 36-62.

Pavlovsky, N. M., Collected Works., (1956). Akad. Nauk USSR, Leningrad (cited by Harr,1962).

Prilot, M., (1996). General local search method. European Journal of Operation Research. 92, 493.

Singh, B., and Varshney, R. S.( 1995) . Engineering for Embankment Dams, A.A. Balkema publishers, Brockfield, USA.

Song, X., Tang, L., Lv, X.,  Fang, H.,and  Gu, H.,. (2012). Shuffled complex evolution approach for effective and efficient surface wave analysis.  Computers & Geosciences. (42), 7–17.

U.S.Army Corps of Engineering.,. (2003). Engineering and Design Stability of earth and rock fill dams. Department of the Army, Engineer Manual EM, 1110-1902.

Faber R, Jockenh T, Tsatsaronis G 2005. Dynamic optimization with simulated annealing. Computer Chemical Engineering. ( 29) 273-290.

Corana, A., M. Marchesi, C. Martini and S. Ridella. 1987. "Minimizing Multimodal Functions of Continuous Variables with the ’Simulated Annealing’ Algorithm." ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software. ( 13) 262-80.