Document Type: Original Article


1 Ph.D. Student of Agricultural Extension, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran

2 Full Professor of Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran

3 Associate Professor of Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran


The aim of the research was analysis of rice producers’ perceptions of participatory communication in the use of integrated pest management (IPM). Research population was consisted of rice producers in the west of Mazandaran province (N=16126), whose 187 ones were selected using Cochran’s formula. Data were gathered by systematic random sampling method. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by a panel of experts. Its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Results of descriptive statistics showed that the rice producers are in the good status in terms of use of integrated pest management’s technologies. The results of ANOVA showed that there are significant differences among rice producers based on their perceptions of participatory communication and use of integrated pest management. Rice producers with higher perception use integrated pest management’s technologies more than others. The results of the correlation coefficient also showed that there is significant positive relationship among all factors related to perceptions of participatory communication (individual effect, contextual education, information receiving and Agricultural Jihad’s flexibility) and the use of integrated pest management, except to the information sending one. Stepwise regression analysis showed that two factors including Agricultural Jihad’s flexibility and contextual education can explain 70/02% of the changes in the dependent variable (use of IPM)


Main Subjects

Asghari, S. (2003). Investigation role of extension in adoption biological champion among Cotton works of Flat Moghan. Thesis for the Degree of Master of Science (MS.c) of in of Agricultural Extension and Education Course. Tehran: Islamic Azad University, Science - Research Branch. (In Farsi).
Bartlett, A. (2008). No more adoption rates! Looking for empowerment in agricultural development programmes. Development in Practice, 18(4-5), 524-538.
Dalton, T. J., Lilja, N. K., Johnson, N., & Howeler, R. (2011). Farmer participatory research and soil conservation in Southeast Asian cassava systems. World Development, 39(12), 2176-2186.
Demiryurek, K., Erdem, H., Ceyhan, V., Atasever, S., & Uysal, O. (2008). Agricultural information systems and communication networks: the case of dairy farmers in the Samsun province of Turkey. Information Research, 13(2), 4.
Feder, G., Murgai, R., & Quizon, J. B. (2004). The acquisition and diffusion of knowledge: The case of pest management training in farmer field schools, Indonesia. Journal of agricultural economics, 55(2), 221-243.
Jafari, E. (2010). Study of effective factors in using of Participatory Communication (PRCA) in Viewpoint of rural development facilitators. Public relations. Monthly magazine of Public relations association of Iran, No. 71, pp. 36-34. (In Farsi)
Leeuwis, C. with Van den Ban, A. (2004) Communication for Rural Innovation: Rethinking Agricultural Extension: Blackwell Science, Oxford.
Liang, J., Tang, S., & Cheke, R.A. (2012). An integrated pest management model with delayed responses to pesticide applications and its threshold dynamics. Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications, 13(5),
Lilja, N., Dixon, J., & Eade, D. (2011). Participatory research and gender analysis: New approaches: Routledge. New York: Routledge.
Maraddi, G.N., Hirevenkanagoudar, L.V, Angadi, J. G., & Kunnal, L.B (2007). Extent of adoption of integrated pest management practices by sugarcane growers. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(3), 564-567.
Nasiri,M. and Nicknejad, Y. (2011).Agents of damage in Rice field whit technical recommendation. Amol: Varesh va. (In Farsi)
Novak, J. M., & Sellnow, T. L. (2009). Reducing organizational risk through participatory communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 37(4), 349-373.
Ofuoku, A.U., Egho, E.O, & Enujeke, E.C. (2009). Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Adoption among Farmers in Central Agro-Ecological Zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Advances in Biological Research, 3(1-2), 29-33.
Razzaghi Borkhani,F., Rezvanfar,A. and Shabanali Fami,H. (2012). Analysis of the role of extension factors on IPM technologies adoption among paddy farmers’ Sari Township. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economic and Development Research. 3:43(2) .435-446. (In Farsi)
Rodloytuk, P. (2007). Buddhist participatory communication for rural development: The case for rural Thailand. The Journal of International Communication, 13(1), 119-136.
Rogers, E.M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations. (4th Ed.). New York, NY: The Free Press.
Rola, A., C, Jamias, S. B, & Quizon, J.B. (2002). Do farmer field school graduates retain and share what they learn? An investigation in Iloilo, Philippines. Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, 9(1), 65-76.
Yamazaki,S. & Resosudarmo, Budy P. (2008). Does sending farmers back to school have an impact? Revisiting the issue. The Developing Economies, 46(2), 135-150.
Yorobe Jr, JM., Rejesus, RM, & Hammig, MD. (2011). Insecticide use impacts of integrated pest management (IPM) farmer field schools: Evidence from onion farmers in the Philippines. Agricultural systems, 104(7), 580-587.
Zilberman, D., & Castillo, F. (1994). Economic and health consequences of pesticide use in developing country agriculture: discussion. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 76(3), 603-604.