Document Type: Review Article


1 Ph.D. Students of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Professors, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

3 Assistant professor, Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


Thin ewes or very over-conditioned ewes and ewes carrying multiple pregnanciesare more likely to develop pregnancy toxemia (ketosis). Pregnancy toxemia is a metabolic disorder characterized by hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia resulting from incapacity of the ewes to maintain adequate energy balance (usually in the last 5-6 weeks).Available information about pregnancy toxemia focuses mainly on pathogenic mechanisms and clinical features, early diagnosis, and therapeutic options. However, the pathophysiology and metabolic changes of this disorder remain poorly understood. An immediate and accurate diagnosis usually increases the possibility for their successive treatment and prevention. The objective of this review was to increase awareness of the disease, its likely cause, and practical treatment and prevention measures


Main Subjects

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