Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Ph.D. Students of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Professors, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

3 Assistant professor, Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

Abstract

Thin ewes or very over-conditioned ewes and ewes carrying multiple pregnanciesare more likely to develop pregnancy toxemia (ketosis). Pregnancy toxemia is a metabolic disorder characterized by hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia resulting from incapacity of the ewes to maintain adequate energy balance (usually in the last 5-6 weeks).Available information about pregnancy toxemia focuses mainly on pathogenic mechanisms and clinical features, early diagnosis, and therapeutic options. However, the pathophysiology and metabolic changes of this disorder remain poorly understood. An immediate and accurate diagnosis usually increases the possibility for their successive treatment and prevention. The objective of this review was to increase awareness of the disease, its likely cause, and practical treatment and prevention measures

Keywords

Main Subjects

Al-Qudah Khaled M (2011). Oxidant and antioxidant profile of hyperketonemic ewes affected by pregnancy toxemia. Vet. Clin. Pathol. 40 (1), 60-65.
Andrews A (1997). Pregnancy toxemia in the ewe. In Pract. 19, 306-312.
Bani Isail Z, Al-Majali A, Amireh F, Al-Rawashdeh O (2008). Metabolic profiles in goat does in late pregnancy with and without subclinical pregnancy toxemia. Vet. Clin. Pathol. 37, 434-437.
Brozos C, Mavrogianni V, Fthenakis GC (2011). Treatment and control of per parturient metabolic diseases: Pregnancy toxemia, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia. Veterinary Clinics of North America – Food Animal Practice. 27, 105-113.
Crnkic C, Hodzic A (2012). Nutrition and Health of Dairy Animals. Overview of Animal Nutrition, Management and Health, Chapter 2, 1-64.
Camacho AT, Guitian FJ, Pallas E, Gestal JJ, Olmeda S, Goethert H, Telford S, Spielman A (2005).
Serum protein response and renal failure in canine Babesia annae infection. Vet. Res. 36, 713-722. Doi:10.1051/vetres: 2005026.
Duehlmeier R, Fluegge I, Schwert B, Parvizi N, Ganter M (2011). Metabolic adaptations to pregnancy and lactation in German Blackheaded Mutton and Finn sheep ewes with different Susceptibilities to pregnancy toxemia. Small. Rumin. Res. 96, 178–184.
Firat A, O¨ zpinar A (2002). Metabolic profile of pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and early lactation in multiple lambing Sakiz ewes. 1. Changes in plasma glucose, 3-hydroxybutyrate and cortisol levels. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 46, 57-61.
Gojnic M, Petkovic S, Papic M, Mostic T, Jeremic K, Vilendecic Z, Djordjevic S (2004). Plasma albumin level as an indicator of severity of preeclampsia. Clin. Exp. Obstet. Gynecol. 31, 209-210.
Gordan ED (2012). Ewe and flock health overview. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Dairy Sheep Association of North America Symposium. 50-63.
Harmeyer J, Schlumbohm C (2006). Pregnancy impairs ketone body disposal in late gestating ewes: Implications for onset of pregnancy toxemia. Res. Vet. Sci. 81, 254–264. Doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2005.10.010.
Moghaddam GH, Hassanpour A (2008). Comparison of blood serum glucose, beta hydroxybutyric acid, blood urea nitrogen and calcium concentrations in pregnant and lambed ewes. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 7, 308- 311.
Moghaddam GH, Olfati A (2012). Metabolic profiles in crossbreed ewes in late pregnancy Proceedings of the 15th AAAP Animal Science Congress, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Thailand. 2207-2210.
Olfati A, Moghaddam GH (2013). Metabolic profiles in crossbreed ewes in late pregnancy during non breeding season. Anim. Sci. Res. In Press.
Radostits OM, Gay CC, Hinchcllff KW, Constable PD (2007). Metabolic diseases; pregnancy toxemia in sheep. In Veterinary Medicine. A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs and Goats. Vol
2. 10th edn. Elsevier. pp 1168-1671.
Ramin AG, Asri S, Majdani R (2005). Correlations among serum glucose, betahydroxybutyrate and urea concentration in non–pregnant ewes. Small. Rumin. Res. 57, 265-269.
Rook JS (2000). Pregnancy toxemia of ewes, does, and beef cows. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 16, 293-317.
Sargison ND, Scott PR, Penny CD, Pirie RS, Kelly, JM (1994). Plasma enzymes and metabolites as potential prognostic indices of ovine pregnancy toxaemia – a preliminary study. Br. Vet. J. 150, 271-277.
Schlumbohm C, Harmeyer J (2004). Hyperketonemia impairs glucose metabolism in pregnant and nonpregnant ewes. J. Dairy Sci. 87, 350-358.
Scott PR, Sargison ND, Penny CD, Pirie RS, Kelly JM (1995). Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma glucose concentrations of ovine pregnancy toxaemia cases, inappetant ewes and normal ewes during late
gestation. Br. Vet. J. 151, 39-44.
Yarim GF, Ciftci G (2009). Serum protein pattern in ewe with pregnancy toxemia. Vet. Res. Commun. 33,431-438.
Zamir A, Rozov A, Gootwine E (2009). Treatment of pregnancy toxemia in sheep with flunixin meglumine. Vet. Record.