Document Type: Original Article


1 MSc student, Ramin agriculture and Natural Resources University

2 Assistant professor, animal science department, Ramin agriculture and Natural Resources

3 Assistant professor, animal science department, Ramin agriculture and Natural Resources University


Effects of different levels of cadmium (0.1, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 mg/l of culture medium) were evaluated using gas production technique. In the glass vials used to measure gas production 30 mg of buffered rumen fluid (2:1 ratio of rumen fluid: buffer) poured in glass and cultured at 38.6 temperature. Volume and pressure of produced gas were measured with syringes and digital pressure meter at different times and exponential model were used to determine the gas production parameters. The results of the experiment indicated that using different levels of cadmium sulfate caused a significant reduction in b parameter, partitioning factor, metabolizable energy and digestion of organic matter. Addition of 0.1, 1, 2, 4 and 16 mg cadmium/l did not affect c parameter in comparison with the control treatment. The results of this study suggest that cadmium in higher levels of 8 mg per liter had strong inhibitory effect on rumen anaerobic microorganisms’ activity


Main Subjects

Babich, H., and Stotzky, G. 1977. Sensitivity of various bacteria, including Actinomycetes, and fungi to cadmium and the influence of pH on sensitivity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 33: 681–695.
 Bowman, J.P., Sly, L.I., and Hayward, A.C. 1990. Patterns of tolerance to heavy metals among methane-utilizing bacteria. Lett. Appl. Microbiol.10: 85–87.
 Cunningham, D.P., and Lundie, L.L. 1993. Precipitation of cadmium by Clostridium thermoaceticum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59: 7–14.
 Gikas, P., P. Romanos. 2006. Effects of tri-valent (Cr(III)) and hexa-valent (Cr(VI)) chromium on the growth of activated sludge, J. Hazard. Mater. B133 212–217.
 Giller K. E., Beare M. H., Lavelle P., Izac A.-M. N. and Swift M. J. 1997. Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and ecosystem function.Applied Soil Ecology 6:3-16.
 Harrison, J.J., H. Ceri, R.J. Turner. 2007. Multimetal resistance and tolerance in microbial biofilms, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 5 928–938.
 Hughes, M.N., and Poole, R.K. 1989. Metals and microorganisms. Chapman and Hall, New York. p.290.
 Juliastuti, S.R., J. Baeyens, C. Creemers, D. Bixio, E. Lodewyckx. 2003. The inhibitory effects of heavy metals and organic compounds on the net maximum specific growth rate of the autotrophic biomass in activated sludge, J. Hazard. Mater. B100 271–283.
 Kurek, E., Francis, A.J., and Bollag, J.M. 1991. Immobilization of cadmium by microbial extracellular products. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.20: 106–111.
 Laddaga, R.A., Bessen, R., and Silver, S. 1985. Cadmium-resistant mutant of Bacillus subtilis168 with reduced cadmium transport. J. Bacteriol. 162:1106–1110.
 Menke, K. H. and Steingass, H. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development. 28: 7–55.
 Mullen, M.D., Wolf, D.C., Ferris, F.G., Beveridge, T.J., Flemming, C.A., and Bailey, G.W. 1989.
Bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.55: 3143–3149.
 Nies, D.H., and Silver, S. 1989. Metal ion uptake by plasmid-free metal sensitiveAlcaligenes eutrophus. J. Bacteriol. 171: 4073– 4075.
 Perry, R.D., and Silver, S. 1982. Cadmium and manganese transport in Staphylococcus aureusmembrane vesicles. J. Bacteriol. 150: 973–976.
 Stoeppler, M. 1991. Cadmium. In: Merian, E. (Ed.), Metals and their Compounds in the Environment. VCH, Weinheim, New York, Basel, Cambridge, pp. 803–851.

 Wilkinson JM, Hill J and Phillips CJC, The accumulation of potentially toxic metals by grazing ruminants.Proc Nutr Soc62:267–277 (2003).
 Orskov, E. R. and McDonald, P. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighed according to rate of passage. Journal of Agriculture Science. 92: 499- 503.
 Blummel, M., Steingss, H. and Becker, K. 1997. There relationship between in vitro gas production, in vitro microbial biomass yield and 15N incorporation and its implications for the prediction of voluntary feed intake of roughages. British Journal of Nutrition. 77: 911–921.
 Hickey, R.F., Vanderwielen, J., Switzenbaum, M.S. 1989. The effects of heavy metals on methane production and hydrogen and carbonmonoxide levels during batch anaerobic sludge digestion. Water Res. 23, 207–219.
 Yue, Z.B., Yu, H.Q., Wang, Z.L. 2007. Anaerobic digestion of cattail with rumen culture in the presence of heavy metals. Bioresource Technology. 98: 781-786.
 Kuo, C.W., Genthner, B.R.S. 1996. Effect of added heavy metal ions on biotransformation and biodegradation of 2-chlorophenol and 3-chlorobenzoate in anaerobic bacterial consortia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62 (7), 2317–2323.
 Crist, H.R., K. Oberholser, N. Shank, M. Nguyen, Environ. 1981. Sci. Technol. 15: 1212.