Document Type : Original Article


Insect Population Toxicology Department, Central Agricultural Pesticides Laboratory, Agriculture Research Center, 12618, Giza, Egypt


Background: Chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate have been widely used to control pests including FAW. For effective pest control, the sublethal effects of these insecticides should be considered.
Methods: The toxicity of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate to third-instar FAW larvae has been determined using topical application. Alpha esterase (EST-α) and beta esterase (EST-β) activity were also assessed after 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h of exposure of larvae to low doses of these insecticides.
Results: The susceptibility of FAW larvae to chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate increased after 48 h, and the LD50 was 0.18 and 0.23 μg/larvae, respectively.
EST-α and -β activity changed significantly in FAW larvae over time after exposure to insecticides. After only 1 h, EST-α, and -β activity after exposure of larvae to insecticides at LD10 showed no significant difference compared to control. However, under LD30 treatments, the activity of EST-α and -β decreased significantly. Significant reduction of EST-α and -β activity was observed in larvae after 48 h exposure to chlorantraniliprole at LD30 (0.5 and 0.15 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively) followed by emamectin benzoate (1.19 and 0.29 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively) compared with control activity.
Conclusion: Sublethal doses of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate affected activities of EST-α and -β of FAW.

Graphical Abstract

Esterase Activity in Homogenates of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) Exposed to Low-Lethal Doses of Chlorantraniliprole and Emamectin Benzoate


Main Subjects

  1. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2018. Integrated management of the Fall Armyworm on maize [PDF]
  2. Gutiérrez-Moreno R, Mota-Sanchez D, Blanco CA, Whalon ME, Terán-Santofimio H, Rodriguez-Maciel JC, DiFonzo C. Field-evolved resistance of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to synthetic insecticides in Puerto Rico and Mexico. Journal of economic entomology. 2019 Mar 21;112(2):792-802. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  3. Womack ED, Williams WP, Smith JS, Warburton ML, Bhattramakki D. Mapping quantitative trait loci for resistance to fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) leaf-feeding damage in maize inbred Mp705. Journal of economic entomology. 2020 Apr 6;113(2):956-63. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  4. Yu SJ. Principles of pesticide metabolism. The toxicology and biochemistry of insecticides. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA. 2008:143-68. [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  5. Carneiro E, Silva LB, Paiva P, Napoleão TH, Carvalho GD, Lopes GN, Pavan BE. Esterase activity in homogenates of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) exposed to different insecticides and the behavioral effect. Bioscience Journal. 2019;35(1):166-76. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  6. Ismail SM. Effect of sublethal doses of some insecticides and their role on detoxication enzymes and protein-content of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of the National Research Centre. 2020 Dec;44(1):1-6. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  7. Desneux N, Decourtye A, Delpuech JM. The sublethal effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2007 Jan 7;52:81-106. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  8. Nansen C, Baissac O, Nansen M, Powis K, Baker G. Behavioral avoidance-will physiological insecticide resistance level of insect strains affect their oviposition and movement responses? PloS one. 2016 Mar 4;11(3): e0149994. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  9. Müller C. Impacts of sublethal insecticide exposure on insects—Facts and knowledge gaps. Basic and Applied Ecology. 2018 Aug 1;30:1-0. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  10. Bass C, Jones C. Editorial overview: Pests and resistance: Resistance to pesticides in arthropod crop pests and disease vectors: mechanisms, models and tools. Current opinion in insect science. 2018 Jun 1;27:iv-vii. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  11. Pinto JR, Torres AF, Truzi CC, Vieira NF, Vacari AM, De Bortoli SA. Artificial corn-based diet for rearing Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Insect Science. 2019 Jul;19(4):2. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  12. Van Asperen K. A study of housefly esterases by means of a sensitive colorimetric method. Journal of insect physiology. 1962 Jul 1;8(4):401-16. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  13. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical biochemistry. 1976 May 7;72(1-2):248-54. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  14. Jiang X, Shen Y, Sun J, Li X, Huang Y, Dong Y, Cao H. Effect of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate oil toxicity and detoxification enzymes activity in Spodoptera frugiperda larva. Journal of Environmental Entomology. 2019;41(5):961-7. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  15. Zhang J, Jiang J, Wang K, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Yu N. A Binary Mixture of Emamectin Benzoate and Chlorantraniliprole Supplemented with an Adjuvant Effectively Controls Spodoptera frugiperda. Insects. 2022 Dec 15;13(12):1157. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  16. Zhang X, Hu C, Wu L, Chen W. Transgenerational Sublethal Effects of Chlorantraniliprole and Emamectin Benzoate on the Development and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda. Insects. 2023 Jun 8;14(6):537. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  17. Yu SJ, Nguyen SN, Abo-Elghar GE. Biochemical characteristics of insecticide resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith). Pesticide biochemistry and physiology. 2003 Sep 1;77(1):1-1. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  18. Carvalho IF, Erdmann LL, Machado LL, Rosa AP, Zotti MJ, Neitzke CG. Metabolic resistance in the fall armyworm: an overview. J. Agric. Sci. 2018;10(12):426-36. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]
  19. Samanta S, Barman M, Thakur H, Chakraborty S, Upadhyaya G, Roy D, Banerjee A, Samanta A, Tarafdar J. Evidence of population expansion and insecticide resistance mechanism in invasive fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). BMC biotechnology. 2023 Jul 4;23(1):17. [Crossref], [Google Scholar], [Publisher]