Document Type : Review Article


1 School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran

2 Independent Researcher, New Jersey, United States of America

3 Pediatric Diseases Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran

4 Faculty of Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad, Iran


Background: Diabetes, specifically gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), has become a global concern, impacting one out of every ten pregnancies. While previously more prevalent in developed nations, GDM is now increasingly common in developing regions, presenting a growing public health challenge. Despite often resolving after delivery, GDM raises the risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies and elevates the long-term risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes for both the mother and child.
Methods: This narrative review consolidates global recommendations and diverse guidelines on GDM management. It underscores the importance of a multidimensional approach, focusing on lifestyle modifications tailored to individual needs. Aerobic and resistance training, combined with personalized dietary adjustments, emerge as effective interventions. Pharmacotherapy may be necessary for about one-third of GDM cases where optimal glycemic control proves challenging.
Results: The review highlights the primary strategy of GDM management, emphasizing lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise adjustments. It also discusses the role of pharmacotherapy when needed for glycemic control.
Conclusions: By providing comprehensive insights into diverse treatment approaches, this review aims to benefit healthcare professionals, researchers, and policymakers. The holistic approach advocated ensures optimal care for individuals with GDM, addressing immediate needs and safeguarding the long-term health of both mother and child. This synthesis contributes to a nuanced understanding of GDM management, aiding informed decision-making and policy formulation in maternal healthcare.

Graphical Abstract

Treatment Approach in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Narrative Review


Main Subjects


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